Đề thi IELTS Writing Tháng 01/2021
|The diagram shows how chocolate is produced. Summarize the information by selecting and reporting the main features and make comparisons where relevant.|
The diagram provides a breakdown of how chocolate is produced. Overall, the production of chocolate involves ripe red cacao seeds undergoing various physical, chemical and biological processes under different temperature conditions to become liquid chocolate.
The process commences when ripe cocoa beans, which are recognisable by their red pods, are harvested on cacao trees indigenous to South America, Africa and Indonesia. Upon being harvested, the oval-shaped pods have their skins removed, and are broken into halves so that the white cocoa beans can be collected. The beans are thereafter sent to a rectangular receptacle where they are fermented. After the fermentation process, the fermented beans are dehydrated by being spread under a prolonged exposure to the sun and then packaged in large sacks.
The process continues when these sacks are transported by train or lorry to a factory. In the factory, the beans undergo a roasting phase at 350 degrees, after which they are are sent to a relatively flat, cylindrical grinder to be crushed, with outer shells being taken away. The inner part goes through a press with two rollers where it is pressed and liquid chocolate is made as a result of this pressing phase.
- recognisable: có thể nhận dạng được
- indigenous to: thuộc về bản địa
- upon being harvested: sau khi được thu hoạch
- oval-shaped: hình oval
- rectangular: hình chữ nhật
- receptacle: vật chứa
- prolonged: kéo dài
- exposure: sự phơi bày
- cylindrical: hình trụ
|Some people think that hosting an international sports event is good for the country, while some people think it is bad. Discuss both views and state your opinion.|
International sporting events have been traditionally deemed beneficial to the host country. However, some others are opposed to the idea, claiming that it does more harm than good. Whilst the former view can be justified for some reasons, I am more inclined towards the latter.
I can understand why it might be beneficial for any nation to host an international sporting event. For countries wishing to promote their profiles, the Olympics and other similar sport-related events can be an ideal choice. A lot more people know about a once-lesser-known South Africa after World Cup 2010, and China has gained increasing global reputation for its successful Olympic Beijing 2008. In addition, preparation for such international events may create jobs for locals, temporarily revitalizing depressed areas.
However, those aforementioned benefits are short-lived, and hosting such a big event is more likely to bring about long-term negative consequences to the environment and the economic wellbeing of the host country. Every aspect of construction, from producing bricks to delivery, has measurable impacts on the environment, let alone the establishment of facilities catering for the needs of a big sporting event like the Olympics, which often brings in its wake the obliteration of hundred acres of woodland. In addition, those amenities are often disused and abandoned after a short period of time, and the costs for maintenance can become a huge economic burden.
In conclusion, my firm conviction is that while hosting an international sporting event can be advantageous to a certain extent, it has profound negative effects on the environmental and economic aspects of a country. There are always better alternatives that benefit a country than organising a very big event without anticipating its long-term impacts.
- deem: xem như là
- inclined towards: nghiêng về
- promote ones’ profiles: xây dựng hình tượng
- reputation: danh tiếng
- revitalize: mang sức sống đến…
- depressed: (tính từ) dùng để miêu tả tình trạng kém về mặt kinh tế, nghề nghiệp etc. (phân biệt với trầm cảm)
- short-lived: không tồn tại lâu
- wellbeing: sự phát triển
- measurable impact: ảnh hưởng đo lường được
- cater for: phục vụ cho
- bring in its wake: mang theo bên nó
- obliteration: sự hủy diệt
|The bar charts illustrate the average house expenses in England and its capital city – London, and to present the comparison regarding the average house prices between distinct areas of England within the year 2013.|
The bar charts illustrate the average house expenses in England and its capital city – London, and to present the comparison regarding the average house prices between distinct areas of England within the year 2013.
Overall, it is patently obvious that in the first graph, the average house prices in England and London underwent upward trends, with its prices for residents living in the capital eclipsing those of the country house price. Additionally, an average house in London cost the most, whereas people residing in the North East were reported to allocate the least amount money for housing.
it could be observed from the bar chart that in the year 1995, the average price of a house in London was $20,000, which was far higher compared to that in England, at around $13,000. Despite the reciprocal surge in both places until the year 2013, the spending on housing in the capital still accounted for a dominant prevalence, with the figures registering a remarkable over $40,000 for a house, more than double the country’s average.
As for the price range, houses in London were recorded to be at the top of the list, reaching a high of $400,000. The figures for South East and the South West ranked second and third places, at around $31,000 and $26,000 respectively. In stark contrast, housing prices were more affordable for citizens living in Midlands and North East, at only around a mere $100,000.
|Some people think students should study the science of food and how to prepare it. Others think that school time should be used in learning important subjects. Discuss both views and give your opinion?|
(Vietop sẽ cập nhật bài mẫu task 2 trong thời gian sớm nhất nhé!)
Xem ngay: Khóa học IELTS 1 kèm 1 – Chỉ 1 thầy và 1 trò chắc chắn đạt điểm đầu ra
|The graphs below show the cinema attendance in Australia and the average cinema visits by different age groups from 1996 to 2000. Summarize the information by selecting and reporting the main features and make comparisons where relevant.|
|Some countries allow old people to work to any age that they want. Do the advantages outweigh the disadvantages?|
|The plans show the change of a small theater in 2010 and 2012.|
Đang cập nhật …
|In some countries, more young adults continue to live with their parents even after they have completed education and found jobs. Do the advantages outweigh the disadvantages?|
In many cultures, children and their parents make conscious decisions to live together well into the children’s adulthood when they have all the means necessary to establish an independent life. Although this practice could have some benefits to both the parents and their offspring, I strongly argue that it could do more harm than good to a person in the modern society.
When adult children and their parents live together, a couple of economic upsides could be identified. By residing in one property instead of splitting into two, the incurred spending on electricity, water and cleaning services is potentially just half as much. This effect is even more profound if a family stays on rental properties. It is more economical to rent one place in lieu of two. Another advantage of living together is familial support during hard times. In the event that one of the members in a family falls ill, especially the aging parents, it is much easier for their sons and daughters to tend to them as they do not have to travel to another place; thus, this helps save the cost on taking care of the sick.
I, however, assert that the often-overlooked pitfall of living with one’s parents for too long can inflict irreparable damage to a person’s life and negate any benefits that it brings. In countries where parents and adult children live together, families usually have strict hierarchical rules that the children must follow whatever their parents order them to do. Consequently, this practice brings up generations of adults who do not know how to make decisions until they get married and when they do, they mirror their parents. Today’s economy rewards ingenuity and decisiveness, so a person’s chance to succeed in life is negatively affected if that person does not have the opportunities to make uninfluenced decisions early on.
In conclusion, a family model which consists of parents and their adult children has some positive effects worth noting, yet the long-term outcome is undesirable. I am a firm advocate that this family model should cease to continue.
- conscious (adj): có chủ đích
- to establish (v): gây đựng
- upside (n): lợi ích. đồng
- incurred (adj): phải chịu
- economical (adj): có lợi về kinh tế
- in lieu of : thay vì. Đồng nghĩa: instead of
- to fall ill (v): mắc bệnh
- to assert (v): khẳng định
- often-overlooked (adj): thường bị bỏ quên
- pitfall (n): cái bẫy, hàm ý là một nguy cơ
- irreparable (adj): không hồi phục được
- hierarchical (adj): mang tính
- to bring up (expression)
- to mirror (v): làm theo
- ingenuity (n): sự khéo léo
- uninfluenced (adj): không bị ảnh hưởng, tự chủ
- undesirable (adj): không mong muốn:
- advocate (n): người ủng hộ
Đề thi IELTS Writing Tháng 02/2021
|The bar chart shows the percentage of small, medium, large companies which used social media for business purposes between 2012 to 2016.|
|Many people believe that it is easier to have a healthy lifestyle in the countryside. Other believe that there are health benefits of living in cities. Discuss both views and give your opinions.|
(Đang cập nhật)
|Children should do organized activities in their free time while others believe children should be free to do what they want. Discuss both views and give your opinion?|
(Vietop sẽ cập nhật bài mẫu task 2 trong thời gian sớm nhất nhé!)
|The table shows the export values of various products in 2009 and 2010.|
The given table details export values of various products in two consecutive years (2009 and 2010) and units are measured in HK dollars.
Overall, it is worth highlighting that export earnings from metals, telecommunity and equipment underwent upswings with metals seeing the fastest growth while the opposite was true for clothing and manufacturing. It was also evident that by 2010, telecommunity export value has overtaken that of equipment to become the largest value.
In 2009, turnover from exporting equipment accounted for nearly a third of total export earnings (32 billion), which ranked first among four products, followed by telecommunity (7.9 billion). Over the next year, it increased to 11.6 billion while the figure for telecommunity experienced a soar, amounting to 12.7 billion. Metal export values, despite lagging behind in 1997 at only 2.3 billion, saw a twofold rise, hitting an all-time high of 5.1 billion in 2010.
Regarding clothing and manufacturing, their figures were quite similar, standing at 6 billion and 5.5 billion in 2009 respectively before dropping to 5 billion and 4 billion in turn at the end of the period.
- Detail (v) mô tả chi tiết
- Measure (v) đo lường
- Upswing (n): sự gia tang
- Overtake (v) vượt qua
- Rank first: đứng hạng nhất
- Amount to (v) đạt được
|Some people believe that the best way to encourage children that have a healthy diet at school and some people believe that parents should teach them to have a healthy diet. Discuss both views and give your opinion?|
Đang cập nhật …
|The diagrams show changes in a student common room.|
|Some people feel that young people should follow the traditions of their society. Others, however, believe that young people should be free to behave as individuals. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.|
Đề thi IELTS Writing Tháng 03/2021
|The diagrams give information about changes in a student accommodation.|
The maps depict modifications to a student accommodation building from 2010 to the present day. Overall, the building has been renovated extensively, seeing fundamental changes to the student-bedrooms and the gardens. In addition, more entrances are added as a result of the remodelling.
In 2010, the building was a relatively green area with three gardens to the northwest, the north and the south of the map. However, in the present day, only the northern one remains; the other two were replaced by a new student bedroom and a car park. The number of student bedrooms was greatly expanded from the original three to five, replacing the former living room.
The current building is also more accessible with more doors added, connecting the rooms to each other and to the exterior. Other major changes include the introduction of an en-suite room and the addition of a new social area in the kitchen. The big bathroom sited at the heart of the map, however, remained unchanged over the given period.
2. Vocab highlights
- Modification: sự điều chỉnh
- Renovate: đổi mới
- Extensively: một cách toàn diện
- Fundamental changes: những thay đổi cơ bản
- Remodelling: thay đổi, thiết kế lại (dùng cho nhà cửa)
- Expand: mơ rộng
- Accessible: dễ ra vào hơn
- Exterior: bên ngoài
- En-suite room: phòng ngủ có nhà tắm ở trong
- Site: nằm ở
|Today many countries import food from different parts of the world. Is this a positive or negative development?|
The consumption of imported food has gained popularity in recent years. In my opinion, this has both positive and negative consequences in equal measure.
One distinct benefit of imported food is the fact that it offers consumers more choices. Thanks to the act of importing food, people from different countries are able to enjoy different kinds of produce that are non-existent in their home countries. Many of the delicacies we like, several of which would appear in our tonight’s dinner tables, are a mixture of ingredients indigenous to different parts of the world. Therefore, it would be a huge loss if we relied solely on local ingredients. Furthermore, foreign food encourages healthy competition among food processing companies, and this will eventually lead to increased food quality.
However, the drawbacks of imported food should not be overlooked. The act of transporting food from a country to another requires frequent use of airplanes, the most fuel-hungry means of transport in the world. A typical Boeing 747 burns thousands of gallons of fuel per flight, and such a huge amount of gasoline burnt is highly detrimental to the atmosphere. Moreover, preservatives are often added to perishable food so that it does not spoil during the transporting stage, and some people fear that such chemicals would be harmful for daily use.
In conclusion, I believe that the rise in the consumption of imported food can open up a better array of choices and add some spices to our meals, yet its effects on the environment and on our health should also be taken into great consideration.
2. Vocabulary highlights
- In equal measure (prepositional phrase): Có mức độ ngang nhau, tương đương nhau
- Produce (n/U): Nông sản
- Non-existent (n): Không tồn tại
- Indigenous (adj) to: Thuộc về bản địa của
- Overlook (v): Bỏ qua, xem thường
- Preservatives (n): Chất bảo quản
- Perishable food (n): Thức ăn dễ bị hư hỏng
- Array (n): Một nhóm đa dạng
- Take into consideration: Xem xét
3. Structure highlights
- Several of which: Số từ + of + mệnh đề quan hệ có thể được dùng để thêm thông tin về số lượng. Ví dụ: I have three pens, all of which are originated from China.
- It would be a huge loss if we relied on…: Mệnh đề điều kiện loại 2 miêu tả một sự việc trái với sự thật ở hiện tại
|The chart below gives information about the amount of time children spend with their parents.|
The stacked bar charts delineate how much time children of various age groups spend with their parents. The initial impression from the charts is that whilst children spend more time with both parents at weekends, mothers allocate more time for child-rearing during weekdays. It can also be seen across the two charts that fathers (excluding the ‘with both’ classification) generally spent the least time with their children.
During weekdays, babies aged from 0 to 1 years spent the least amount of time (2 hours) with the fathers, the most time with the mothers (roughly 5.8 hours), and around 1.2 hours with both. Similar pictures are evident in the remaining age groups; around 1.5-2 hours are spent with the fathers, approximately 6 hours with the mothers, and 1-2 hours with both.
A relatively different pattern could be observed regarding the child-rearing time at weekends. Across the age brackets, the fathers still set aside the least time with their kids (only a negligible 0.25-0.5 hours), mom’s time allocation is around 3-4 hours, and both parents together put from 5 to 6 hours into caring for child kids.
3. Vocabulary highlights
- Stacked bar chart: biểu đồ cột chồng
- Delineate: mô tả chi tiết
- Allocate: dành thời gian
- Roughly: khoảng
- Similar pictures are evident in: điều tương tự có thể thấy ở…
- A relatively different pattern could be observed: một xu hướng hơi khác có thể quan sát được
- Child-rearing: sự chăm sóc trẻ em
- Age bracket: nhóm tuổi
- Set aside: dành ra
- Negligible: không đáng kể
- Allocation: sự dành ra
- Put into: dành bao nhiêu (thời gian, công sức) vào việc gì đó
|Some people store personal and private information online, including banking, contacts and addresses. Is it a positive or negative trend?|
Today, many of the internet services require their clients to disclose their personal information such as locations, phone numbers and bank account numbers. Potentially, the practice in question poses mostly drawbacks.
A lack of cyber protection has begotten a new class of international cybercriminals who rampantly prey on the stored information of the customers. A progressively increasing number of incidents of identity thefts has been reported in the recent years. Some examples of these criminal activities are stealing money from oversea bank accounts, posing as someone else to make illegal transactions and scamming. The men and women behind these cases often work from remote places, hacking into systems of foreign companies to extract their customers’ data, which makes the effort to apprehend, extradite and prosecute these perpetrators a daunting and seemingly impossible task. Therefore, it is usually the clients who face the consequences.
Perhaps more worryingly, there have been reports of companies that sold the data of their clients to third parties. Customers’ information, including contacts and spending habits, has become valuable commodities inside the telemarketing and online-marketing circles. In this era, the ability to get hold of precise information of the potential client’s contacts and what they are looking into buying can make or break a business. The practice of purchasing people’s data is widely used in the real-estate, insurance and tourism sales industry; and their providers often obtain the permission to commercialize the consumer data through deceitful tactics, for instance, obscure pre-ticked box in registration forms. Over the past few years, fierce debates have taken place over the ownership of consumer data and the ethics of data mining. However, the current answer to this conundrum seems to be only a little more than a band-aid solution.
In conclusion, giving away information to online services is largely negative, for societies have yet to establish effective protection for people’s data when put online. Currently, putting one’s sensitive information on the internet may expose them to unfathomable risks.
- disclose (v): cho phép được biết
- cyber (adj): ảo, trên mạng
- prey on (expression): nhắm vào ai đó/cái gì đó (để lừa đảo, trộm cắp)
- progressively (adv): dần. Đồng nghĩa: gradually
- transaction (n): cuộc giao dịch
- apprehend (v): bắt giữ. Đồng nghĩa: arrest, detain
- extradite (v): dẫn độ
- prosecute (v): truy tố
- perpetrator (n): thủ phạm
- to face the consequences (expression): hứng chịu hậu quả
- commodity (n): mặt hàng
- make or break (expression): làm cái gì đó trở nên thành công hay thất bại thảm hại. Ý nói cái gì đó là yếu tố then chốt. Dùng như động từ (verb)
- commercialize (v): thương mại hóa
- deceitful (adj): lừa dối, gây nhầm lẫn. Deceitful tactic: thủ thuật gây nhầm lẫn
- ethics (n): đạo đức (khi làm việc gì đó)
- a band-aid solution (n): cách giải quyết tạm bợ
- unfathomable (adj): không lường trước được
|The graph below gives information about the percentage of people living in Australia who were born in Asia, the UK, and other regions.|
The line graph delineates demographic figures of Australian people who were born in different parts of the world. The initial impression from the graph is that the figures for people born in Asia and Other generally enjoyed upswings, with the former seeing the fastest growth, whilst that of the UK experienced a decline. It is also clear that the total population saw a steady drop in the first 25 years, but later rose sharply during the final 10 years of the given period.
In 1976, around 14% of the Australian people were born in the UK. This was followed by Other (roughly 12%), and Asia (3%). Over the next 25 years, while fewer Australians came from the UK, with its figure dropping to approximately 6%, the figures for Other and Asia rose steadily to 11% and 9% respectively. The total population of Australia, in the meantime, experienced a gradual decline from 22.5% in 1976 to its all-time low of 21% in 2001.
Over the last 10 years, the proportion of Australian people born in the UK went down to 5%, whereas opposite patterns are evident in the figures for Australian people of Asian and European descent, with the former rising to 12% and the latter to its high of 15%. The total demographics at this particular time frame saw a steep growth to its peak of 25%.
- Delineate: mô tả chi tiết
- Demographic figures: số liệu về dân số
- Initial impression: ấn tượng ban đầu
- Upswing: sự tăng
- In the meantime: trong khi đó
- All-time low: điểm thấp nhất tại mọi thời điểm
- Opposite pattern: xu hướng ngược lại
- Evident in: thấy rõ ở
- Demographics: số liệu dân số
- Of…descent: có nguồn gốc từ
- Steep growth: sự tăng trưởng nhanh
|Many people are working longer hours. Why is this happening? What problems can this cause to people?|
In many companies and corporations, the typical nine-to-five workday has been evolving into a longer and more gruelling work schedule. This phenomenon is caused by the profit-oriented nature of a great number of companies and an influx of enthusiastic young laborers in recent years. Although this trend is continuing, it is detrimental to the well-being and social life of the workers.
The increasing number of companies which are driven strictly by profits and the emergence of a cohort of youthful laborers are the reasons why many workers choose to work longer hours. In many places, the surplus of young workers entering the workforce gives employers an abundance of human resources. These businesses prefer to hire as few employees as possible to save administrative costs as well as other perks that would have curtailed their profit had they employed more people. Instead of maintaining a longer employee roster, these companies incentivize their current workers by promising them promotion, raise and over-time payment. From the worker’s perspective, refusing to work longer hours might hurt their chance to progress their career further, especially when there is so much competition. Their internalized fear of being replaced often drives them to the decision of working extra hours. Junior workers endure punishingly lengthy shifts in fear of getting eliminated, whereas senior staff do the same in fear of being replaced by their younger colleagues.
Potentially, this toxic practice could not only lead to the decline of the physical and mental health of these corporate employees but also damage their relationships with others. People who work in these conditions might suffer chronic muscular and joint pain such as lumbago, fibrositis caused by constant sitting and a lack of exercises. This, coupled with prolonged anxiety and perpetual pressure to meet deadlines and required targets, has reportedly resulted in crippling depression for many workers, which is among the leading causes of work-related suicide. In cases where the outcomes are less destructive, such an exhausting schedule still intrudes far enough into the private life of these workers to cause family or spousal estrangement. Furthermore, choosing work over social outing is a form of self-imposed ostracism which would eventually prune off a person’s bonds and relationships with others.
In conclusion, as businesses grow in their profit, it is at the cost of their employees health and social well-being. If this is left unchecked, it could lead to immeasurable negative consequences.
- Nine-to-five workday (expression) : ngày làm việc 8 tiếng
- To evolve into (expression): dần biến thành
- Gruelling (adj): mỏi mệt, kiệt sức
- Phenomenon (n): hiện tượng
- Surplus (n): lượng dư ra
- Administrative (adj): mang tính chất quản lí, thuộc bộ máy quản lí
- Social security: bảo hiểm xã hội
- Roster (n): danh sách
- Incentivize (v): khuyến khích (bằng thưởng)
- Endure (v): chịu đựng
- Punishingly (adv): một cách kiệt sức
- Chronic (adj): kéo dài, kinh niên
- Lumbago (n): đau cơ thắt lưng
- Fibrositis (n): viêm cơ
- Perpetual (adj): không ngừng, kéo dài
- Crippling (adj): làm thương tật (nghĩa đen). Crippling depression: trầm cảm nặng, không làm gì được.
- Intrude (v): xâm nhập, xâm lấn
- Estrangement (n): sự ghẻ lạnh, bất hòa
- Ostracism (n): sự tẩy chay
- Prune of (expression): cắt bỏ (phần thừa)
|The maps below show a beachfront area in Australia in 1950 and today.|
The diagrams depict modifications to an unspecified beachfront area in Australia. Overall, the area was renovated extensively, seeing fundamental changes to the road leading to the city, its swimming pool, and other recreational facilities.
In 1950, to the uppermost part of the map, there was a road running eastward from the city directly to the car park. In the present day, the road was expanded southward, leading to the lighthouse and circling the entire beachfront. A new car park was added, taking up the space where there once was a playground.
Another major change includes the addition of a big restaurant and a surf club, which was located to the western area of the beach. The pool adjacent to the two said facilities is now expanded to become a 50-meter one, and while the other pool to the east was unchanged, there was a new surf club added next to it.
The dining tables and the pavilion along the road, however, remained at the same position over the given period.
- Renovated extensively: được đổi mới toàn diện
- Fundamental changes: những thay đổi căn bản
- Uppermost: phần trên cùng
- Adjacent to: kế bên
|People believe that individuals who make a lot of money are the most successful. Others say that those who contribute to society like scientists, teacher are the most successful. Discuss both and give your opinion?|
Many people believe that success can only be measured either by individuals’ sum of wealth or their contribution to science and education. This is not entirely true because many great business people have made significant advances in science and education. In this essay, I argue that while the former view, which may signify the result of one’s genius and vision, is an understandable premise for measuring success; the latter, which is traditionally valued, proves to be the superior measurement.
Many admirers of wealthy business people have reasons to think that being rich is a proof of success. Business magnates like Bill Gates, Jeff Bezos and Elon Musk have changed the course of human history through their brainchildren. Their products such as the Window Operating System, Amazon and Paypal have helped make the booming virtual economy we know today despite early ridicules and sabotage from technology skeptics. These moguls also possess spectacular business acumen and their subsequent investments, in real estate or crypto-currency such as Bitcoin, have yielded in even more wealth for them.
While I agree that being wealthy can signify success, it is only the byproduct and that lasting academic contribution to society is a far better criterion to define success. Educators and scientists have historically been heralded as heroes due to the belief that intellectuals, through their academic contributions, are shapers of minds and thus their influence can last for generations. However, it should be clarified that a rich person can indeed contribute to science and education. For instance, inventing Google has made Larry Page a billionaire and Google has undoubtedly provided means and platforms to usher modern education into a new era. Elon Musk, for his Tesla vehicles, should be regarded as the father of future transportation rather than as a man who temporarily became the richest human being.
In conclusion, pursuing wealth does not automatically disqualify a person from contributing intellectually. However, I assert that lasting academic contributions to society should be the priority when considering a person’s success.
- Genius (n): sự thiên tài
- Premise (n): cơ sở, tiền đề
- Superior (adj): tối ưu hơn
- Magnate (n): trùm kinh doanh. Đồng nghĩa: mogul
- Brainchild (n, pl. Brainchildren): đứa con sáng tạo, con tinh thần
- Sabotage (n): phá hoại
- Mogul (n): như magnate
- Acumen (n) : sự nhạy bén
- Crypto-currency (n): tiền ảo, ví dụ: bitcoin, etherium, dogecoin
- Yield in (expression): cho kết quả
- Herald (v): xưng tụng, tung hô
- Intellectual (n): người trí thức
- Byproduct (n): phụ phẩm
- Criterion (n): tiêu chuẩn
- Temporarily (adj): một cách tạm thời
- Disqualify (v): truất quyền, bỏ tư cách
- Assert (v): khẳng định
Đề IELTS Writing Task 1 trên máy tháng 03/2021
|The diagram shows how the horse evolved through time, with particular emphasis on its foot structure.|
The diagrams illustrate the evolution of equine species through the span of 40 million years, represented by the modern horse and its three ancestral species, with a clear focus on the morphological changes of the foot.
Overall, while all four species share the common trait of being quadrupedal, equine species have increased in size, evolved to have more hair (on the tail and mane) and gone from having toes to a single hoof on each foot.
The Eohippus, which lived 40 million years ago, had four short legs that supported a relatively small torso and its tail was barely observable. Its two descendants, Mesohippus and Mecrychippus, which are respectively estimated to exist 30 million and 15 million years ago, started to have elongated tails and rudimentary form of the mane; and whereas their bodies increased slightly in height, the overall stature was largely unchanged. The modern horse possesses the most pronounced tail and mane; it is also the largest animal whose height and length of body are about three halves of its oldest shown ancestor.
The foot of Eohippus stands out the most for having four separated toes with thin phalanges. In Mesohippus and Merychippus, the number of digits is reduced to three and the middle phalanx is enlarged so the whole foot’s morphology starts to resemble a hoof. The modern horse’s foot has the fewest bony structures and the hoof has replaced toes.
- Equine (adj): (thuộc) họ ngựa
- Ancestral (adj): (liên quan đến) tổ tiên
- Morphological (adj): (thuộc về) hình thể
- Trait (n): tính chất, đặc điểm
- Quadrupedal (adj): có bốn chân, đi bằng bốn chân
- Mane (n): bờm
- Hoof (n): móng lừa, ngựa
- Descendant (n): hậu duệ, đời sau
- Elongated (adj): kéo dài, nối dài, có sự dài ra
- Rudimentary (adj): sơ khởi, nguyên thủy
- Pronounced (adj): rõ rệt
- Three halves: gấp rưỡi hay 3/2
- Phalanx (n, số nhiều: phalanxes hoặc phalanges): xương bàn chân và xương ngón chân
- Morphology (n): hình thể, hình thái
- To resemble (v): nhìn giống
- Bony (adj): (liên quan đến) xương
Đề thi IELTS Writing Tháng 04/2021
|The line graph illustrates the proportion of total expenditure in a certain European country between 1960 and 2000.|
The line graph delineates expenditure on different life aspects in an unspecified European country from 1960 to 2000. The initial impression from the chart is that spending on food, leisure, transport and fuel/energy generally decreased, with food undergoing the most dramatic downturn while expenses on transport showed an upward trend.
In 1960, roughly 35% was spent on food, ranking first among the five classifications surveyed. This was followed by leisure (20%), clothing (10%), and transport (9%). Allocations for fuel/energy were insignificant, accounting for only 5%.
Over the next 40 years, spending on food underwent a steady decrease, and by 2000, it had seen a more than twofold drop to its low of only 15%. Similar patterns are evident in leisure, clothing and fuel/energy, with all three categories seeing decreases to 11%, 6% and 4% respectively. In contrast, transport was the only one to see an increase in spending, with its figure amounting to 15% in 2000.
- Delineate: mô tả chi tiết
- Expenditure: chi tiêu
- Initial impression: ấn tượng ban đầu
- Downturn: sự suy giảm
- Expenses: chi tiêu
- Allocation: phần dành ra
- Account for: chiếm
- Twofold: gấp đôi
- Similar patterns: những xu hướng tương tự
- Evident: hiển hiện rõ
- Amount to: đạt được
|Many students find it difficult to concentrate or pay attention in school. What are the reasons? What could be done to solve this problem?|
Inattentiveness of students in the classroom seems to be a universal problem. In this essay, I argue that the old-fashioned teaching methodologies are largely responsible for this and propose that schools should redesign their curriculum to counter this issue.
Outdated approaches to education are the main reason which causes difficulties for students to concentrate in school . Grueling hours drain their attentional stamina and make them inattentive in class. Students around the world are assigned a schedule that resembles a nine-to-five workday, perhaps intentionally to correspond to their parents’ working hours. This situation is further aggravated by obsolete pedagogical practices which favor mechanical recitation and memorisation. It is common practice in some countries that schoolchildren from a young age are taught to memorise lengthy predetermined answers from the beginning of their course to prepare for exams. Gradually, this method makes the student mentally exhausted and it extinguishes any enthusiasm they have in the classroom.
The aforementioned problems are the consequence of having a school system that has been virtually unchanged in decades so solving them requires innovative measures. While schools may not have to drastically reduce the hours, they should lighten the information load for their students. Redesigning the schedule necessitates the introduction of interactive exercises and games to the lessons, which have been verified by studies to stimulate students’ curiosity and thereby improve their attention span. Furthermore, being able to relate issues from their daily life also enhances concentration. Therefore, sessions in which students are forced to memorise and recite dull facts should be replaced by practicums which teach the students to find solutions for real life problems.
In conclusion, replacing the outdated and ineffective teaching methods is fundamental to capture students’ attention and kindle their interest in learning. I firmly believe that the current school system needs to be changed dramatically.
- Inattentiveness (n): sự lơ là, không tập trung
- Universal (adj): rộng, khắp thế giới (ý nói: ở rất nhiều nơi)
- To redesign (v): thiết kế lại, tái thiết
- Curriculum (n): giáo án, chương trình giảng dạy
- Grueling (adj): mệt nhọc
- Stamina (n): thể lực
- To aggravate (v): làm tệ đi
- Obsolete (adj): lỗi thời
- Pedagogical (adj): (mang tính) sư phạm
- Predetermined (adj): được định trước
- To extinguish (v): dập tắt, (nghĩa đen) dập đám cháy
- Aforementioned (adj): được nêu trên
- Innovative (adj): (mang tính) đổi mới
- To lighten (v): làm nhẹ đi
- To necessitate (v): buộc phải
- To verify (v): kiểm chứng. Passive: to be verified = được chứng nhận
|The bar chart shows type of media to get daily news, by age group 2011|
The bar chart delineates how people from different age groups utilised different forms of media to receive daily news. The data were recorded for the year 2011.
The initial impression from the chart is that microblogging was the least favoured of the three sorts of media across the age brackets. It is also clear that radio was more popular among adults aged 18 or older, and age is a clear predictor for the decrease in the use of social networking sites.
Social networking was the most popular media among the 10-to-17s, at 80%, which was followed by radio (40%) and microblogging (20%). A different picture, however, could be observed with regard to the remaining age brackets. Radio was the predominant type of media, with its figure standing at around 90% for the 18-to-29s, 30-to-49s, and 50-to-64s, and a little bit lower (85%) for the over 65 group. The figures for social networking were lower across the age ranges, at 80% for the 18-to-29 age group down to 50% for the 30-to-49s, 40% for the 30-to-49s and a low of 25% for the oldest group. Microblogging was always the least preferred platform, varying between 25% and a negligible 10%.
- delineate: mô tả chi tiết
- initial impression: ấn tượng ban đầu
- favoured: ưa thích
- age is a clear predictor: tuổi tác là một nhân tố tiên đoán được cho…
- with regard to: liên quan đền (dùng để giới thiệu thông tin)
- age bracket: nhóm tuổi
- predominant: phổ biến nhất
- platform: nền tảng
- negligible: không đáng kể
|It is now possible for scientists and tourists to travel to remote natural environment, such as South pole. Do the advantages of this development outweigh the disadvantages?|
Recent advancements in technology have enabled humans to travel to distant places in nature. This is scientifically beneficial to all societies, yet concurrent tourism activities can contaminate the pristine conditions of these places and negate the scientific benefits.
Being able to travel to these places is an unprecedented opportunity for scientific development and application, especially in the field of climatology. Scientists can now travel to pristine locations to collect live specimens, fossils and observe the local natural phenomena that may not have been documented before. For example, studying the layers of the ice cores from the North and South Poles has helped scientists to reconstruct the climatic trends and patterns which date back to millions of years. These findings can add valuable insights and revolutionise the way humans understand our environment in the past and the present. Recently, such findings have been extremely useful in the ongoing discussions on how to solve global issues such as global warming.
Despite unique opportunities it offers to the scientific community, traveling to unspoiled natural destinations could inflict irreparable damage on them when tourism is involved, thereby doing more harm than good. Littering and vandalism are two of some most pressing problems caused by tourism. For example, numerous mountain peaks which previously could only be reached by serious mountaineers have reportedly been polluted and defaced after the installations of aerial tramways which grants unrestricted access to all visitors. The aforementioned remote environments could suffer the same fate when waves of tourists frequently land there. Furthermore, the contamination brought to these locations by touristic activities could also interfere with the quality and accuracy of the scientific research carried out there.
In conclusion, exploiting remote natural locations for tourism could nullify the scientific values they offer and even cause permanent damage to these places. Only selected organizations and individuals who follow strict rules and regulations to preserve these places should be allowed to access.
- to contaminate (v): làm bẩn, gây ô nhiễm
- pristine (adj): nguyên sơ
- unprecedented (adj): chưa có tiền lệ
- climatology (n): khí hậu học
- specimen (n): mẫu, tiêu bản trong khoa học
- phenomenon (n, số nhiều = phenomena): hiện tượng
- to date back to (expression): bắt đầu từ (năm nào đó)
- insight (n): sự thấu hiểu, kiến thức sâu
- ongoing (adj): đang diễn ra
- unspoiled (adj): đồng nghĩa với pristine
- irreparable (adj): không thể khôi phục
- vandalism (n): việc phá hoại tài sản công (kể cả môi trường tự nhiên).
- mountaineer (n): vận động viên leo núi
- to deface (v): làm xấu đi, làm hư hại vẻ đẹp
- aerial tramway (n): cáp treo
- aforementioned (adj): đã được nhắc đến
- to interfere (v): gây gián đoạn, làm ảnh hưởng tiêu cực
- permanent (adj): vĩnh viễn
- to preserve (v): bảo tồn
|The maps give information about a university sports court.|
The maps depict modifications made to the layout of an unspecified university sports court from 1990 to the present day. Overall, the sports court was renovated extensively with the addition, replacement and relocation of various facilities.
In 1990, the western part of the court was a largely open area with a big park and a car park. However, in the present day, the former was transformed into a basketball court, and the latter was replaced by a tennis court.
The northern side of the area, in the meantime, is enclosed with walls, which leads to the outdoor pool being converted into an indoor one. The fitness center is added, taking up the space where there once was a tennis court, and the changing room formerly located adjacent to the reception in 1990 is now relocated next to the centre. The cafe and the reception, however, remain at the same position over the given period.
- modifications: sự thay đổi
- transformed into: được biến đổi thành
- replaced by: được thay thế bởi
- in the meantime: trong khi đó
- enclosed with walls: được bao quanh là tường
- formerly: trước đây
- adjacent to: kế bên
|Nowadays more tasks at home and work are being performed by robots. Is this a negative or positive development?|
Robots are automated machines that can perform various tasks. In recent years, advancements in robotics have paved the way for robots being implemented in houses and replacing human workers in certain work. This is definitely a positive development.
In many households, robots can replace humans in doing repetitive tasks that are required to keep these houses in order. Every year, people spend thousands of hours running repeated errands and doing boring housework such as mowing lawns, washing dishes and vacuuming. These chores are often seen as burdens since they take up too much time and return little reward, and on many occasions, they also expose people to risky situations and harmful chemicals. Over the last few years, products like Roomba the robot vacuum cleaner have begun to emerge as must-haves in households. By adopting these robots into doing housework, many people will be relieved from their housekeeping duty, thus they will have more time to pursue other endeavours rather than wasting it on meaningless work.
Many people rightly point out that automated machinery may put people out of jobs and create an economically turbulent period; however, this will be temporary and the long-term result is more desirable than our current situation. There is a worry that bartenders, bricklayers, cooks and especially factory workers may find themselves unemployed with the rise of robot workers. However, robots improve the conditions at workplaces the same way it does in households. They can alleviate the dangers of scaffolding work for construction workers, and in emergencies such as bomb defusal and house fires they are certainly better than humans. With the aid of appropriate social safety programmes, in the long run, robots can help human workers to transition into work environments that are less harmful.
Robots could minimize the danger and reduce the time spent on tasks both in households and at work with reasonable trade-offs. When all factors are considered, it could be concluded that robots would be a positive addition in people’s life.
- automated (adj): tự động
- robotics (n): lĩnh vực nghiên cứu về robot
- to implement (v): áp dụng. Be implemented: được áp dụng.
- repetitive (adj): lặp đi lặp lại.
- expose someone to something (expression): đưa ai đó vào tình huống hay đưa ai đó tiếp xúc với vật/chất nào đó.
- must-have (n): thứ nên có/phải có
- to emerge (v): xuất hiện, hiện ra
- to relieve (v): giảm nhẹ. Be relieved: được giảm
- to pursue (v): theo đuổi
- endeavour (n): sự cố gắng (ý nói mục tiêu)
- turbulent (adj): bất ổn
- desirable (adj): đáng mong muốn
- alleviate (v): làm giảm bớt
- scaffolding (n): giàn giáo
- trade-off (n): sự đánh đổi
|The bar chart below shows the passenger kilometres traveled by different means of transport in the UK in 1990 and 2000. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.|
The bar chart details the number of passenger kilometres covered by various modes of transportation in the UK in two years 1990 and 2000. The initial impression from the chart is that very few kilometres were travelled using bicycles, motorbikes and planes compared to buses and trains. It is also clear that whilst traveling by air, bus, train and in total enjoyed upswings, the opposite was true for bicycle and motorbike.
In 1990, bicycles and motorbikes were not used much in the UK, at only around 5 billion passenger kilometres, and the figures even went down to 4 billion over the next 10 years. Also standing at the relatively low of 5 billion in 1990, aviation travel thereafter rose, albeit slightly, to roughly 8 billion in 2000.
Opposite patterns are evident in bus and train travel. Both started at a high of 42 billion and 40 billion (in that order) in 1990, and then rose to 50 billion in 2000. The total figure also grew from 100 billion to 110 billion over the same time frame.
- detail: mô tả chi tiết
- initial impression: ấn tượng ban đầu
- relatively: tương đối, kha khá
- aviation: hàng không
- thereafter: sau đó
- albeit: mặc dù
- opposite patterns: những xu hướng trái ngược
|Some people think that childcare centers provide the best services for children of preschool age. Other working parents think that family members such as grandparents will be better carers for their kids. Discuss both views and give your opinion.|
In the modern world, families with both working parents are becoming a norm, so the responsibility of child-rearing often falls on the shoulders of grandparents or day care services. Many people think the facilities and the professionally trained personnel that childcare centers offer are the best option, while others prefer the nurturing nature of grandparents. I assert that the latter is the better choice.
Childcare services are professional in taking care of children and can provide them with a suitable environment for their development. These centers are usually equipped with facilities such as playgrounds, labs and gardens that allow their young clients to learn about the natural world as well as engage in a range of physical and intellectual activities. The exposure to principle knowledge and activities could help the children to develop their characters and physical well-being thereby helping them prepare for the world. While they partake in said activities, their essential needs are taken care of by professional caregivers who are experts in child psychology and various pedagogical methods. By and large, the facilities and services provided by such centers are often thought to be better compared to amenities at home.
On the other hand, I would argue that it is better to let a child be taken care of by their grandparents. The key objective of child-rearing is to assure the children of a place of total safety to grow and learn. Grandparents could usually provide undivided attention for their grandchildren. Besides accommodating the essential needs, grandparents could also watch out for potentially dangerous situations in which the children may injure themselves. In contrast, the sheer numbers of children at a childcare center makes it difficult for the caregivers to monitor every child at any given time. Staying at home also shells the children away from being bullied by their aggressive peers. Therefore, while lacking certain facilities and services, staying with one’s grandparents is the better option.
In conclusion, childcare centers are best at providing facilities and services that, in theory, would allow the children to develop to their full potentials whereas they cannot match the safety at home or the individual care grandparents could accommodate. For these reasons, I think that grandparents are better caretakers for preschool-children.
- child-rearing (n): quá trình chăm sóc trẻ em
- facility (n): cơ sở vật chất
- personnel (n): nhân viên
- nurturing (gerund của to nurture): nuôi dưỡng
- be equipped with (expression): được trang bị với
- engage in : tham gia vào hoạt động nào đó
- exposure (n) : sự tiếp xúc
- By and large (expression) : nhìn chung
- amenity (n): tiện nghi
- objective (n): mục đích
- to assure (v): đảm bảo
- undivided attention: sự quan tâm cao độ (không phân tán)
- sheer (adj): chỉ là
- to monitor (v): giám sát
- shells someone away from something (expression): bảo bọc ai đó.
Đề thi IELTS Writing Tháng 05/2021
|The bar chart shows the number of people who visited different museums in London. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.|
The bar chart illustrates the number of visitors of four museums in London in five months of an unspecified year.
Overall, with the exception of the Science Museum, the number of visitors to each museum witnessed an upward trend during the first half, and then decreased in the second half of the period. It is also clear that whilst the British Museum was the most frequently visited in most of the months, the National Museum was consistently in the last place.
In June, the History Museum, the British Museum, and the Science Museum each had over 400,000 guests, with the Science Museum having a narrow lead, at 430,000. The National Museum was roughly two times lower, at only around 210,000 visitors. In July, while the figures for the History Museum and the British Museum generally plateaued, the National Museum and the Science Museum experienced mild drops of around 20,000.
However, in August, the number of visitors to the British Museum and the History Museum enjoyed remarkable upswings, with the former nearly doubling to 720,000 and the latter rising to 600,000. Meanwhile, the Science Museum’s figure fell down to the third place as it dropped down slightly to about 410,000 before peaking at 500,000 in September. All three figures experienced downward trends in October, at around 250,000 for the History Museum, 450,000 for the British Museum, and 300,000 for the Science Museum. During the same time frame from July to October, visitors to the National Museum, despite experiencing a substantial rise to around 310,000 in August, stayed between 180,000 and 210,000.
- with the exception of : ngoại trừ
- to witness an upward trend: có xu hướng tăng
- first/second half: nửa đầu/nửa sau
- to plateau (v): duy trì ở một mức
- mild (adj): nhẹ
- drop (n): sự sụt giảm
- upswing (n): (sự) tăng
- to double (v): tăng gấp đôi
- to peak (v): đạt đỉnh
- to experience a downward trend: có xu hướng giảm
- substantial (adj): mạnh (khi tả việc tăng/giảm)
|It is more important to spend public money on promoting a healthy lifestyle in order to prevent illness than to spend it on treatment of people who are already ill. To what extent do you agree or disagree?|
It is said that taxpayers’ money should be allocated to promote a healthy lifestyle rather than to focus on treating patients. I completely agree with the statement, for disease prevention is cheaper, and being healthy is always better than being hospitalised.
Knowing how to lead a healthy life is more cost-effective than paying money to cure a particular disease. For instance, the cost of a balanced diet containing fundamental nutrients in the form of fresh ingredients such as meat, fish and vegetables is within financial capacity of even the underprivileged. In contrast, the expenditure on medical treatments of serious diseases such as cancer or diabetes may be as high as thousands or even millions of dollars, which is a fortune for the majority of people. Therefore, rather than spending a huge sum of money on treatment, allocation of the government’s budget for promoting a healthy lifestyle, which is much less expensive, is deemed a wiser investment.
Additionally, it is more comfortable to be fit and healthy than to stay in a hospital ward surrounded by drugs and medical devices. In fact, maintaining positive habits of eating well and doing physical exercises, despite taking a decent amount of time and effort at incipient stages, yields more desirable results than spending parts of one’s life on a wheelchair, with a zimmer or heavily dependent on medical treatments. For example, no one would have to suffer from costly hours of painful chemotherapy if they are able to minimise the cause by leading a healthy lifestyle.
In conclusion, it is my firm conviction that prevention is always better than cure, and therefore promoting a healthy way of living is the better budget spending. Tackling the upstream causes of ill health is the core principle of any person’s overall well-being.
- allocate (v): dành ra
- hospitalise (v) nhập viện
- cost-effective (adj) tốt về mặt chi phí
- underprivileged (adj) khó khăn về mặt kinh tế
- diabetes (n) bệnh tiểu đường
- fortune (n) một món tiền lớn
- deem (v) cho là
- ward (n) khu trong bệnh viện
- incipient (adj) ban đầu
- yield (v) cho ra
- desirable (n) mong muốn
- zimmer (n) khung tập đi (cho người già, người khuyết tật)
- chemotherapy (n) hóa trị
- upstream (adj) ban đầu
- ill health (n) sức khỏe xấu
- core principle (n) nguyên tắc cốt lõi
- wellbeing (n) sự khỏe mạnh
|The maps below show the changes in the art gallery ground floor in 2015 and present day.|
The maps depict modifications to the ground floor of an unspecified art gallery from 2015 to the present day. Overall, the ground floor underwent a complete transformation with various facilities being relocated, replaced or added.
Between 2015 and the present day, the reception desk was relocated to a position where it is closer to the entrance. The hall was further expanded to the right-hand side of the ground floor, taking up the space where there once was a gallery office. There is now a lift adjacent to the former stairs, and the café on the top left corner of the ground floor was converted into a gallery shop with a vending machine located just outside.
Another major change to the area was the rearrangement of the exhibition rooms. The exhibition room #4 on the left-hand side of the room was divided into a temporary one and an area for children, while the three exhibition rooms on the right-hand side remain unchanged. The final change made to the layout of the ground floor is the additional ramp for wheelchairs, which makes the gallery become more accessible to the disabled.
- undergo (v): trải qua (thường là một quá trình gì đó)
- relocate (v): chuyển chỗ. Be relocated: được chuyển chỗ
- adjacent (adj): kế
- convert (v): chuyển đổi. Be converted: được chuyển đổi (để phục vụ chức năng khác)
- temporary (adj): tạm thời
- layout (thường là the layout, n): bố cục
- accessible (adj): dễ tiếp cận
- the disabled (adj): người khuyết tật.
|Some people believe that a country will benefit greatly if its students study abroad. To what extent do you agree or disagree?|
Studying overseas is believed by some people to be beneficial to the student’s home country. From my perspective, although there is a potential risk of a brain drain, students who study overseas make great financial and intellectual contributions to their countries and therefore I completely agree with the idea.
The main concern over studying abroad is the fact that some international students might not consider returning to their countries upon finishing their courses. Opponents of the idea argue that the loss of human capital as a result of students leaving permanently might negatively affect a country’s overall development. However, the argument fails to take into account the fact that positive intellectual exchange might give rise to brain circulation, the situation in which the flow of skilled labour circulates among nations, and thus students are able to make positive impacts on all of the nations they are involved in.
Furthermore, students upon return have brought with them the much-needed capital, innovative ideas and economic contributions to their countries. This is particularly the case for developing ones. For example, every year ‘Haigui’, the term coined to refer to successful Chinese students returning to Mainland China, have sent home a huge sum of remittances to support their families. In addition, labourers graduating from overseas have profoundly changed the economic facets of the country by becoming the assets of big corporations. Many of them also establish their own successful startups in the technology sector using the advanced training in this field, which is more common in developed countries.
In conclusion, it is my firm conviction that studying abroad is a welcomed force for good, especially for developing countries. It is not an overstatement to say that overseas students, with the profound contributions they have brought home, are instrumental in the well-rounded development of a country.
- brain drain (n) chảy máu chất xám
- opponent (n) người phản đối
- human capital (n) nguồn vốn nhân lực (kiến thức, tay nghề)
- take into account (verb phrase): tính đến
- give rise to (verb phrase): dẫn đến
- brain circulation (n) sự lưu thông chất xám
- flow (n) dòng chảy
- circulate (v) lưu thông
- much-needed (adj) rất cần thiết
- remittance (n) tiền (thường dùng để chỉ tiền gửi về từ nước ngoài)
- facet (n) khía cạnh
- asset (n) thành phần quan trọng
- force for good (n) sự thay đổi tích cực
- instrumental (adj) in: đóng vai trò thiết yếu
- well-rounded (adj) toàn diện
|The first graph shows the number of train passengers from 2000 to 2009; the second compares the percentage of trains running on time and target in the period.|
The upper graph illustrates the changes in the number of passengers travelling by train in an unspecified geographical location, and the lower graph shows the proportion of trains running on time in a 10-year period from 2000 to 2009 compared to the fixed target of 95%.
Overall, the number of travellers using trains showed an unsteady upward trend. The rate of trains running on time was also erratic, meeting or exceeding the target from 2002 to 2005, and again from 2008 to 2009.
In the first four years, the number of train travellers rose from around 37 million to its first peak of about 37 million in 2002, before dropping to just below its starting number in 2003. Also in that period, the rate of on-time trains went from an inadequate 92% to a sufficient 95.5%. During the next three years, train passengers rose sharply and hit the most significant peak of around 47 million in 2005; thereafter the figure started declining by approximately four million. In terms of running time efficiency,the rate was 96% in 2004,but later fell drastically to 92% in 2006.
In the last three years, the number of passengers stabilized at around 43 million while the proportion of on-time trains improved gradually and eventually plateaued at 97%.
- show an upward trend: cho thấy xu hướng tăng
- unsteady (adj): không đều đặn
- erratic (adj): không đều, khó đoán
- to meet the target (expression): đạt chỉ tiêu
- to exceed (v): vượt
- peak (n): đỉnh
- inadequate (adj): không đủ, không đạt yêu cầu
- sufficient (adj): đủ
- thereafter (adv): sau đó
- approximately (adv): khoản
- to plateau (v): giữ nguyên mức.
|Restoration of old buildings in main cities involves enormous government expenditure. It would be more beneficial to spend this money to build new houses and roads. To what extent do you agree or disagree? Give reasons for your answer and include examples from your own experience.|
Restoring and maintaining dated buildings in major cities often takes considerable governmental funding. Some people oppose this and favour using tax money to construct more houses and road infrastructure. I generally agree with this idea because a society ought to provide its citizens with the basic need of housing, yet in cases of historic and iconic buildings, exceptions should be granted.
In big cities, tax money should be allocated to provide adequate housing and construct more roads to accommodate the increasing population. More and more people from economically deprived regions have been migrating to metropolitan areas in search of work. This has caused the population density in certain cities to rise remarkably, bringing in its wake negative outcomes such as traffic congestion and crowded living quarters. Using tax money to build more houses, therefore, provides people with affordable shelters that low-income people could purchase. In addition, constructing more roads means smoother traffic which enables the economy to grow effectively.
On the other hand, there are buildings that are worth restoring because of their historical or symbolic significance. These buildings are the source of inspiration for arts and sometimes income for the local people, and they are of great interest to historians, archaeologists and architects for their academic values. Structures within the Imperial City of Hue are the prime example of such buildings. The Imperial City of Hue has been the subject of countless works of arts and literature, and as a tourist attraction, it has also been beneficial to the local business. Academically, it offers a glimpse into how life was in ancient Vietnam.
In conclusion, I agree that constructing more houses and roads is important and should generally be prioritized over maintaining old buildings with the exception of historically significant constructions. I believe this should be the approach for most cities.
- governmental funding (noun phrase): tài trợ từ chính phủ
- infrastructure (n): cơ sở hạ tầng
- housing (n): nơi ở (nhà và chung cư)
- adequate (adj): đầy đủ
- economically deprived (adj phrase): thiếu thốn kinh tế
- bringing in its wake: mang theo bên nó
- living quarter (noun phrase): phòng ở
- affordable (adj): hợp lý, phải chăng (về giá cả)
- symbolic (adj): có tính biểu tượng
- significance (n): sự quan trọng
- be of interest (expression): đáng chú ý/quan tâm
- the Imperial City of Hue: Kinh thành Huế
- glimpse (n): một cái nhìn
- be prioritized over (expression): được ưu tiên hơn.
|The graphs below show the percentage of men and women aged 60-64 who were employed in four countries in 1970 and 2000. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features make comparisons where relevant.|
The bar charts illustrate the proportion of men and women of four countries between the age of 60 and 64 who participated in the workforce in 1970 and 2000.
Overall, there were fewer working people aged 60 to 64 in 2000 compared to 1970. It is also clear that the rates of men were always higher than those of women across the four given countries.
In 1970, it is evident that the percentages of working males and females aged between 60 and 64 in the USA was the highest, at 86% and 76% respectively. This was closely followed by Indonesia (84% for men and 65% for women), and Belgium (79% for men and 63% for women). Japanese working people who fell into the 60-to-64 bracket ranked last, at 76% men and 56% women.
In 2000, Belgium experienced drastic drops in the figures for both genders and became the countries with the lowest proportion for men (52%) and women (8%), with the widest discrepancy of 44%. Men in the USA, Japan and Indonesia all reduced to 78%, 63% and 74%, respectively; for women, the percentages varied between 45% and 50%.
- to participate in the workforce: tham gia vào lực lượng lao động
- compared to: so với
- be followed by: được theo sau bởi
- closely (adv): một cách sát sao
- fell into (expression): rơi vào
- bracket (n): một nhóm/khoảng được định nghĩa dựa vào giá trị lớn và bé.
- Vd: Most of my neighbors’ monthly income falls into the $500-$1000 bracket.
- Đa số lương tháng của hàng xóm của tôi rôi vào khoảng $500 đến $1000.
- figure (n): con số (khi nói về thống kê)
- discrepancy (n): sự chênh lệch
- respectively (adv): một cách lần lượt
|The use of mobile phones should be banned in public places like libraries and shops. To what extent do you agree or disagree?|
Mobile phones have been an inextricable part of the modern world, and they have brought in its wake not only benefits but also drawbacks. Opinions differ as to whether or not those gadgets should be allowed in public places. From my perspective, the use of cellphones should be banned in areas where they may cause unwanted disruptions such as libraries or hospitals, but in others they should be welcomed provided that they are used in a cautious, respectful manner.
In certain places such as libraries or hospitals, I agree that cellphones should be banned as they can be very disruptive or potentially harmful. In a library where great concentration is required, a mere sound from phone notifications can be greatly irritating. This is why many libraries in the world have rules and regulations against people talking or video-calling on the phone. Moreover in hospitals, phones are greatly restricted as they can hamper the recovery of people hospitalised. No patients want incessant noises of people talking loudly and laughing on their phones, and what is more, the use of phones can be hazardous especially in intensive care units as they are believed to cause electromagnetic interference with important medical equipment.
Apart from the aforementioned areas, when used judiciously, phones are greatly beneficial. Many daily tasks are carried out by phones, and there are certain jobs, such as businesspeople, that require making frequent phone calls. Furthermore, smartphones can provide solace during tedious long periods of daily commute, and in case of emergency such as car accidents, emergency calls are greatly needed. Therefore, I believe that banning them in those areas is simply not helpful and unrealistic. In order to avoid intrusion from loud phone rings, phone users can always activate the vibrate or silent mode and refrain from speaking with high volumes.
In conclusion, my firm conviction is that the ban on mobile phones in hospitals and libraries can be justified. However, other than those places the use of phones, with manners, should be embraced.
- inextricable (adj): không thể tách rời.
- to bring in its wake: mang theo với nó
- gadget (n): dụng cụ (thường là máy móc)
- disruption (n): sự quấy nhiễu
- provided that (expression): miễn là. Đồng nghĩa: As long as, given that
- respectful (adj): mang tính tôn trọng
- disruptive (adj): có tính quấy nhiễu
- irritating (adj): gây khó chịu
- rules and regulations: quy tắc và điều lệ
- to hamper (v): cản trở, làm chậm
- incessant (adj): liên tục
- hazardous (adj): gây nguy hiểm:
- intensive care unit/ICU: đơn vị điều trị tích cực
- medical equipment: thiết bị y tế. Lưu ý: equipment luôn luôn là danh từ không đếm được.
- judiciously (adv): một cách có cân nhắc
- solace (n): sự giải khuây
- tedious (adj): chán, buồn tẻ.
- emergency (n): tình trạng khẩn cấp
- unrealistic (adj): phi thực tế:
- to refrain (v) + from : kiềm chết không làm việc gì đó
Đề thi IELTS Writing Tháng 06/2021
|The pictures below show the process of making clothes from recycled plastic bottles. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features and make comparisons where relevant.|
The given picture illustrates the process of manufacturing clothes using recycled plastic bottles.
Overall, the production of clothes from recycled materials involves plastic bottles undergoing various stages in which they are collected, sanitized, and physically altered.
The process begins with plastic bottles being collected and transported by trucks to factories where they are sorted and then cut into small plastic pieces in a specialized funnel-shaped shredding machine. Next, these particles are passed through an apparatus to be washed, after which they are placed in a container and sun-dried for 10 hours. In the next step, they are transferred to a cylindrical boiler to be melted down.
Subsequently, the melted substance is strained and made into yarn. In the penultimate stage, the yarn is weaved into the desired fabric that is suitable for making clothes and rolled up into separated units. The process ends when the recycled fabric is manufactured into clothes.
- undergoing (gerund của verb undergo): trải qua quá trình nào đó
- sanitize (v): tiệt trùng, làm sạch
- alter (v): biến đổi, thay đổi
- funnel-shaped (adj): hình phễu
- shredding machine hoặc shredder (n): máy cắt, máy hủy
- sun-dry (v): phơi nắng
- cylindrical (adj): hình trụ
- subsequently (adv): tiếp theo, sau đó
- penultimate (adj): áp cuối
|Some people think the newly built houses should be the same as the old houses in local areas. Others argue that local authorities should allow people to build houses in their own styles. Discuss both views and give your opinion.|
Some people are of the opinion that they should have freedom of choice when it comes to designing their own houses, and that they should not be restricted to any former local styles. Although freedom in architecture can be beneficial in fostering diversity, I would argue that too much leeway in building houses would greatly spoil the overall landscape of the local area.
Free house design is, to a certain extent, a good way of promoting diversity. City skylines, for example, would be more interesting to look at if there are buildings and houses with different shapes and sizes. Furthermore, people from different societal backgrounds see houses as manifestations of personalities, wealth, and societal positions. Mansions of the rich, exotic houses of those who are artistic all combine with other normal-looking ones to form a melting pot of creativity.
However, I would not consider an area whose houses are built without any regard to the nature of the surroundings beautiful. Having different styles of houses co-existing in one place can be an architectural disaster rather than a welcome innovation. Ho Chi Minh City is a prime example of unsightly concrete jungles chaotically mingled with historic structures existing for hundreds of years. Architectural homogeneity, on the other hand, often brings aesthetic appeals to the local landscape. The beauty of ancient towns, for example, comes from the uniformity and harmony in terms of architectural design.
In conclusion, my firm conviction is that it is better for new houses to be built in a similar fashion to the other buildings in the area.
- of the opinion: có quan điểm rằng
- leeway (n) : sự tự do
- manifestation (n): sự thể hiện
- exotic (adj): kì lạ nhưng mang lại sự thích thú; kì thú
- melting pot (n, idiomatic expression): nơi có đa dạng người, ý tưởng etc. cùng tồn tại với nhau
- co-exist (v): cùng tồn tại
- align (v): thẳng hàng, đồng nhất
- erect (v): xây dựng
- mingle (v) + with: trộn lẫn
- homogeneity (n): sự thống nhất
- aesthetic appeals (n): tính thẩm mỹ
- uniformity (n): sự đồng bộ
- in a similar fashion to: có kiểu tương tự như
Đề thi IELTS Writing Tháng 07/2021
|The table shows information about department stores and online stores in Australia in 2011. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.|
The table compares the statistics of Australian department stores and online stores in 2011. Six indicators were mentioned in the table, namely the number of businesses, profit, sales revenue and growth rates.
The initial impression from the table is that the number of online stores dominated their department counterparts and had a slight edge in profit, sales revenue and growth.
The number of online stores was almost sixfold higher than that of department stores. In terms of revenue, 67 physical stores generated 12 700 million AUD compared to 13 400 million AUD of 368 online stores.
A similar pattern is evident in terms of sales revenue. Online retailing claimed 863 million AUD in profit, which was 46 million more than traditional retailing. It is also shown that online business growth rate was at 0.6%, which was higher than that for department stores by a 0.2% margin.
- to dominate (v): vượt trội, chiếm ưu thế
- to have a slight edge (expression, verb): có chút lợi thế
- sixfold (adj): gấp sáu. Công thức: n-fold (n = two, three, four,…)
- to generate (v): làm ra, tạo ra
- A similar pattern is evident in (expression): Xu thế tương tự có thể thấy ở …
|It is a natural process for animal species to become extinct (e.g. dinosaur, dodo…) There is no reason why people should try to prevent this from happening. To what extent do you agree or disagree?|
Some people opine that extinction is a part of nature and preventing it from happening is futile. I partly disagree with this notion because there is a distinction between natural and human-induced extinction, and the latter may prove to be catastrophic to both humans and animals.
On the one hand, it is neither useful nor financially possible to try to save every species on planet Earth. The natural environments and habitats have been changing for billions of years. Throughout this timeframe, animal species have adapted to the changes or evolved into new species in order to survive. While one day it may be technologically feasible to preserve all animals in artificial environments, it will surely cost a prohibitive amount of tax money for research and implementation. Furthermore, the objective of such projects is questionable as they only provide insights that only the elite scientists have the ability to grasp, and it does not address what I believe is the main cause of mass extinction: human activities.
On the other hand, I argue that we must be conscious that a wave of human-influenced mass extinction can also negatively affect our survival and that we have to make efforts to save the important animals. Human activities have led to global climate change, deforestation, severe pollution, and overhunting that consequently put a plethora of animals on the brink of extinction, including the keystone species. This could inflict irreparable damage to our societies in its wake. Take sharks that prey on seals for example, their population has been on the decline, owing to overfishing. With the limited presence of their predators, the seal population has multiplied and they have started to consume other fish that humans use as food at an unprecedented rate. If rules and regulation or education are not established to stop fishermen from driving sharks out of existence, we could expect a shortage of fish as a protein source in the near future.
In conclusion, I think that it is prudent for our society to ensure the survival of particular species. However, this must be done strategically as not to waste further resources.
- human-induced: có sự ảnh hưởng của người
- habitat (n): sinh cảnh, môi trường sống
- to adapt (v): thích nghi
- feasible (adj): khả thi
- prohibitive amount of (expression) + noun: một số lượng lớn đến nổi không thực hiện được mục đích.
- implementation (n): việc thi hành
- to grasp (v): (nghĩa bóng) hiểu. Đồng nghĩa: to understand.
- human-influence (adj): có sự ảnh hưởng của con người
- on the brink of extinction (expression): bên bờ tuyệt chủng
- keystone species (expression, noun): loài chủ chốt
- irreparable (adj): không chữa lành được, không bù đắp được
- unprecedented (adj): chưa có tiền lệ
Đề thi IELTS Writing Tháng 08/2021
|The chart below gives information on the percentage of British people giving money to charity by age range for the years 1990 and 2010.|
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features and make comparisons where relevant.
The given bar chart details the levels of donation made by British people in 1990 and 2010. The figures are classified according to five different age groups.
The initial impression from the chart is that the percentages of British donors in the three younger age groups generally decreased, whilst the opposite was true for the two older age brackets.
In 1990, roughly 17% of the people aged between 18 and 25 gave money to charity, and in the same year the figures for the 26-to-35 and 36-to-50 groups were approximately 31% and 42.5% respectively. Over the next 20 years, donations made by the 18-to-25 saw the most dramatic drop to around 7.5%, whereas the figures for the 26-to-35 and 36-to-50 groups also fell to 24% and 35% respectively.
Money allocated for charitable work among the two oldest groups, meanwhile, stood at very high levels of 32-35% in 1990, followed by an upswing to nearly 40% for the 51-to-65, and 35% for the over-65.
- detail (v) mô tả chi tiết
- impression (n) ấn tượng
- the opposite was true: điều ngược lại thì đúng với
- donation (n) tiền từ thiện
- allocate (v) dành ra
- upswing (n) sự tăng
|Some people work for the same organisation all their working life. Others think that it is better to work for different organisations. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.|
There are people who believe that one should work for different employers throughout their careers since this practice would expose the workers to a wide range of opportunities and challenges. People on the opposite end of this argument choose to be loyal to a single organisation, citing stability and emotional satisfaction. I think that the latter is the better option.
Experiencing different work cultures can help a person be a better problem solver, possibly leading to unique career opportunities. Assuming different companies may have different approaches to the same problem, a worker who masters multiple approaches would prove that they process highly sought-after qualities such as adaptability and problem-solving skills. Such workers are likely to be sought after by different organisations and offered promotions as well as lucrative contracts. In reality, the CEOs of some of the largest corporations can often be former CEOs of lesser-known businesses who were recognized for their achievements and subsequently invited to work for these giants.
People who spend their career working for one organisation, on the other hand, are often able to take advantage of their familiarity with the working conditions and the perks that come with their seniority. Having worked in the same environment throughout their career, they may not need to readjust to any new working cultures. This could also allow them to have intimate operational knowledge of their organisations, thus making them irreplaceable after a certain amount of time. Most successful businesses also value loyal workers and reward them with seniority-based bonuses. The key difference which makes staying with the same organisation a superior choice to job hopping is job satisfaction and emotional stability. Because of the disproportion between the number of workers and desirable positions, it could be assumed that most people would never reach their dream job. This could potentially cause emotional distress, feelings of inadequacy and disappointment to the vast numbers of workers.
In conclusion, while working for various organisations may provide some chances of an extraordinary career, the odds of being left disappointed and emotionally depleted loom over the workers. I think that stability and subsequent emotional satisfaction is what makes a career desirable and enjoyable.
- loyal (adj): trung thành
- adaptability (n): sự thích nghi
- lucrative (adj): hấp dẫn (có nhiều lợi ích về tiền bạc)
- lesser-known (adj): ít được biết tới
- seniority (n): thâm niên
- readjust (v): (tái) điều chỉnh
- irreplaceable (adj): không thể thay thế
- disproportion (n): sự bất cân đối
- feelings of inadequacy: cảm giác thiếu thốn/thua kém
- extraordinary (adj): phi thường
|The diagrams below show the changes that have taken place at West Park Secondary School since its construction in 1950.|
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features and make comparisons relevant.
(Đang cập nhật)
|Car ownership has increased so rapidly over the past thirty years that many cities in the world we now “one big traffic jam”.|
How true do you think this statement is?
What measures can government take to discourage people from using their cars?
Some people believe that the recent rapid increase in car ownership has been the major culprit of massive traffic jams in many places. While I partially agree with this assessment, I think there are more factors involved.
While I believe that the recent rise of the number of car owners has a role in severe traffic congestion in cities, other factors such as mass migration into metropolitan areas and dated road infrastructure are also responsible. Over the last few decades, many cities have been successful in economic development and become economic hubs which attract millions of work seekers from less developed areas. Cities from London, New York in the western world to Ho Chi Minh and Rio de Janeiro in developing countries are now home to 10 to 20 million people each. Many of them are also more financially secure than people in the past and they could afford four-wheeled vehicles more easily. However, in most of these cities, the size and number of the roads are almost the same as 30 years ago, leaving them unable to accommodate the influx of cars in the traffic.
Upgrading the public transport systems and establishing policies to encourage people not to use their cars are some possible solutions to this problem. Most people use their cars for convenience and to save cost. The cities could address these needs of people by developing more stops for buses, trams and the subways in vital areas as well as reducing the fares of these means of transportations significantly. To raise the budget for such a project, the cities could impose a sort of ownership tax on vehicle owners since having too many cars in traffic contributes to the deterioration of road conditions and delays the economic flow of these cities. This levy should further prevent the trend of more people purchasing new vehicles and switching to using public transports.
In conclusion, it is more accurate to deem that heavy congestions in metropolitan areas around the world are caused by not only the rising number of car owners but also by the increase in number of city dwellers, and run-down road systems. This issue could be solved by making the public transport systems more efficient and cost effective.
- migration (n): sự di cư
- metropolitan (adj): tính từ của thành phố lớn
- infrastructure (n): cơ sở hạ tầng
- influx (n): sự gia tăng đột ngột
- to establish a policy (collocation): ban hành chính sách
- fare (n): giá vé
- deterioration (n): sự phân hủy/xuống cấp
- levy (n): thuế
|The charts below give information about the price of tickets on one airline between Sydney and Melbourne, Australia, over a two-week period in 2013.|
The two bar charts show the discrepancies in the price of round tickets between Melbourne and Sydney of an undefined airline within a two-week period in 2013. (1)
In general, the flying cost between the two cities did not seem to be distinctively different, and the price of flight tickets was relatively higher on weekends than on weekdays.(2)
Regarding the trip from Sydney to Melbourne (3), the ticket price of the first-week Monday reached $80 (4), which was by far the highest price to be paid. This experienced a significant fall of $30 (5) in the following week, making it the only difference throughout the period. In other words, almost no changes were recorded in the ticket prices on the remaining days. Whilst passengers could pay a lower price of $35 (6) on Tuesdays and Wednesdays, they were required to spend extra 5 dollars (7) to fly to Melbourne on Thursdays. The prices were more costly on the weekends as they could go up to $75 (8).
A similar pattern could be seen in the cost of airplane tickets from Melbourne to Sydney. (9) Flight-goers could buy tickets at the most affordable price of around $35 (10) from Tuesday to Thursday, which showed no changes between the bar graphs. The first week’s Friday ticket price ranked first at 80$(11), followed by 60$ tickets (12) for flights departing on Monday and Saturday. A week later showed a $20 decrease (13) in the price of Monday tickets, but a stable price range at $50 (14) for Saturday and Sunday.
(1): Paraphrase lại đề bài, không copy 100%; gạch chân các thành phần của đề bài như chủ thể (ticket price), thời gian (2-week period, 2013), nơi chốn (airline),…để chắc chắn ko bị miss trong quá trình viết intro.
(2) Phần Overall viết về 2 điểm nổi bật nhất trong biểu đồ; Nên là 2 vì như thế sẽ giúp câu văn trở thành dạng câu phức, kết nối với nhau bằng liên từ. *Lưu ý: nếu 1 ý đã quá dài thì nên tách ra thành 2 ý, tránh viết 1 vế câu dài quá 20 từ.
(3), (9): Mỗi khi chuyển đoạn cần có cụm từ chỉ dẫn (As for + N, regarding +N , moving to the next bar chart, + Clause…)
(4) – (14): Đối với chủ thể được đề cập là giá tiền, chúng ta có thể có nhiều cách diễn đạt chứ không chỉ là giảm/ tăng. Việc linh hoạt trong sử dụng từ ngữ sẽ giúp bài không bị nhàm chán.
- Discrepancies: những sự khác biệt
- Round tickets: vé khứ hồi
- Undefined: không xác định
- Distinctively different: khác biệt hoàn toàn
- Relatively: khá
- Remaining days: những ngày còn lại
- Pattern: hình, mô hình
- Flight-goers: hành khách đi máy bay
- Affordable: (gía) hợp lý
- Ranked: xếp hạng
- Departing: khởi hành
- Stable: ổn định
1. As / Whereas/ While/ Whilst X verb, Y verb: Whilst passengers could pay a lower price of $35 (6) on Tuesdays and Wednesdays, they were required to spend extra 5 dollars (7) to fly to Melbourne on Thursdays.
2. Clause, followed by + Noun Phrase: The first week’s Friday ticket price ranked first at 80$(11), followed by 60$ tickets (12) for flights departing on Monday and Saturday. 3. X verb, Verb-ing, (which verb): This experienced a signific.
|Nowadays celebrities are more famous for their glamour and wealth than for their achievements, and this is a bad example to adolescents. To what extent do you agree or disagree?|
In this day of technology, there are many paths to fame. Some are known for their exceptional talents, others marry a billionaire and become famous. There is a rising concern that young people may be allured by people’s glamorous lifestyle that they wouldn’t want to work to achieve success in life. Though this is partly true, I disagree that the young generation will be adversely affected. (1)
People have their points in believing that becoming famous for behavior in certain circumstances is just a matter of lucky timing.(2) Inheriting a handsome amount of money, or divulging a dishonorable life is are possible ways to be widely known. It has long been believed that Kim Kardashian was launched into fame for no reason. After her intimate tape with rapper Ray J “leaked”, the woman is now worth over $1 billion. The message to young people is that fame and wealth are not necessarily something you could plan for.
However, the fact that some people are known for their scandalous lifestyle doesn’t mean all celebrities are the same. Most internationally-acclaimed people we know today are those with excellent accomplishments. (3) Their financial success and reputation are measured by years of heavy workload and intense practice. An exemplary model is Mark Zuckerberg, who became world-famous for being the co-founder and CEO of Facebook, and undoubtedly, a billionaire. It is undeniable that his overwhelming victory was paid at the cost of his youth, immense effort and unparalleled stamina. This kind of self-made celebrity is still inspiring the young to fulfill their dreams with a dedicated heart.
In conclusion, it is somehow true that some famous people are known for their alluring lifestyles, but the young generation nowadays is still in hopes of being led by a great number of celebrities who have been recognized for what they actually contributed. (4)
(1): Mở bài gián tiếp “There are…become famous” giúp vào đề tự nhiên hơn. Các chủ đề đưa ra các vấn đề gây tranh cãi thì áp dụng các mẫu câu “There is a rising concern that…, It is argued that…, A much-debate issuse is whether or not …”; Luôn nhớ TRẢ LỜI CÂU HỎI đề bài: Agree/ Disagree?
(2), (3): Đầu đoạn văn luôn nêu luận điểm lớn rõ ràng để dẫn dắt người đọc. Sau đó giải thích bằng các luận cứ hoặc đưa ví dụ cụ thể. Bài này nói về người nổi tiếng nên việc đưa ví dụ cụ thể là rất cần thiết.
(4) Kết luận luôn có concluding phrase “In conclusion,”, “To sum up,” , “It can be concluded that…” ;Không đưa thêm ý tưởng mới, chỉ paraphrase một cách ngắn gọn những ý đã viết ở trên.
- Rising concern: vấn đề đang dấy lên
- Adversely affected: bị ảnh hưởng tiêu cực
- Lucky timing: đúng thời cơ
- Inherit: thừa kế
- A handsome amount of money: một khoản tiền lớn
- Divulge: tiết lộ
- Dishonorable: đáng chê trách, đáng xấu hổ
- Launched into fame: trở nên nổi tiếng
- Intimate tape: đoạn băng chứa nội dung nhạy cảm, thân mật
- Internationally-acclaimed: nổi tiềng thế giới
- Undeniable: không thể chối cãi được
- Overwhelming victory: thắng lợi vẻ vang
- Immense: to lớn
- Unparalleled: không thể so sánh được
- Stamina: sự quyết tâm
- Self-made celebrity: người nổi tiếng tự thân
- Fulfill their dreams: thực hiện ước mơ
- Alluring: đầy mê hoặc
- In hopes of: giữ hy vọng rằng
- S + tobe + V3/V-ed (Passive voice): Their financial success and reputation are measured by years of heavy workload and intense practice; It has long been believed that Kim Kardashian was launched into fame for no reason.
- S (V-ing) + V + O: Inheriting a handsome amount of money, or divulging a dishonorable life is are possible ways to be widely known
- S + tobe (+ adj) + that + Clause: It is undeniable that his overwhelming victory was paid at the cost of his youth, immense effort and unparalleled stamina; The message to young people is that fame and wealth are not necessarily something you could plan for.
Đề thi IELTS Writing Tháng 10/2021
|The table details the international tourist arrivals in millions in 8 countries in 2009 and 2010 and the changes (in percentages).|
The table compares the number of international visitors who came to nine nations and their percentage change over a two-year period.
Overall, most nations saw an increase in foreign visitor arrivals, with Germany having the most significant proportion. In the meanwhile, there were two exceptions: France, which remained steady, and Hong Kong, where the numbers showed an 11 percent drop over the two years.
In 2009 and 2010, 76,000 foreign tourists visited France, compared to 66,000 visitors to the United States in 2009 and 67,000 in 2010. In comparison, tourist arrivals in Spain and the United Kingdom were much lower. In 2009, both of these nations welcomed 55,000 international tourists, increasing to 56,000 and 57,000 visitors the following year.
The estimates for Italy also increased moderately, from 44,000 in 2009 to 45,000 in 2010. Despite the inferior numbers, foreign visitor arrivals in Turkey, China, and Germany all escalated significantly during this time, with Germany seeing the most dramatic exacerbation at 109 percent. The numbers for Hong Kong, on the other hand, dropped by 1,000 to 9,000 between these years.
- Proportion (n): tỉ lệ, phần
- Welcome (v): chào đón
- Moderately (adv): một cách khiêm nhường
- Escalate (v): tăng
- Exacerbation (n): sự nhảy vọt
Xem thêm: Bộ từ vựng cho IELTS Writing Task 1
Nhìn chung, ta thấy rằng các nước đều thể hiện sự tăng trong số lượng khách du lịch, nhưng Đức có con số ấn tượng nhất. Đó cũng là điểm nổi bật mà chúng ta cần bổ sung vào trong xu hướng của bài này.
Vì bài này có nhiều dữ liệu, nên chúng ta sẽ chia đôi thân bài ra để dễ theo dõi. Đoạn đầu tiên so sánh Pháp, Mỹ, Anh và Tây Ban Nha, và sử dụng những động từ thể hiện sự tăng/ giảm để thể hiện sự thay đổi trong số liệu.
Đoạn tiếp theo đề cập đến phần trăm khách du lịch của các nước còn lại, và gom thông tin lại để nói chung (vì số liệu của các nước đều có điểm chung là tăng). Tuy nhiên nhớ mô tả số liệu nổi bật nhất trong bài (nước Đức), và đề cập tới Hong Kong là nước duy nhất có xu hướng giảm.
|Some people think that men are naturally more competitive than women. To what extent do you agree or disagree?|
It is a frequent assumption that women are inferior to men. While some argue for discrimination, I hold a view that that all genders have significant advantages and should be treated equally which would be clarified during the course of the essay.
On the one hand, many people believe that men are superior to women. The limited chances women were given to outperform their male counterparts is the key reason why they are being less competitive. Males have dominated the workplace, while their wives were expected to laboriously perform numerous home responsibilities. Furthermore, on a physical level, males are unquestionably stronger than females. Male players are more appealing and professional than female players in many sports that involve physical strength and endurance, such as football.
On the other hand, there are a variety of reasons why sexes in today’s society should be equally valued and respected. To begin with, the dual-income household has become increasingly widespread, meaning that modern women, like men, are breadwinners. As a result, in every element of life, both genders make major contributions to the community and their nuclear family. Second, many females prefer to pursue a successful career in a male-dominated industry, where their particular qualities, such as tolerance, compassion, and empathy, would be advantageous. It would be ludicrous to expect them to survive and succeed in the male-dominated world while also being housewives. As a result, professional recognition of women’s skills is required.
To summarize, I not only oppose sexism, but I also believe that everyone, regardless of gender, is entitled to fair treatment.
- Inferior (adj): yếu kém, thua thiệt
- Superior (adj): vượt trội toàn diện
- Laboriously (adj): vất vả và tốn thời gian
- Endurance (v): sức bền
- Dual-income household (n): gia đình có cả vợ và chồng cùng đi làm
- Tolerance (n): sức chịu đựng
- Compassion (n): lòng thương cảm, lòng trắc ẩn
- Ludicrous (adj): khó chấp nhận, kỳ quặc
- Sexism (n): sự phân biệt giới tính
Mở bài paraphrase lại câu hỏi, đồng thời nêu trực tiếp quan điểm của bản thân đối với vấn đề.
Ở đoạn body 1, tác giả thể hiện ý kiến về vai trò, tính cách của nam và nữ khác nhau ra sao và điều đó ảnh hưởng đến tính ganh đua như thế nào. Đàn ông từ lâu đã được tin rằng phải lo những công việc ngoài xã hội còn phụ nữ lo chuyện gia đình. Bên cạnh đó, việc vượt trội hơn về mặt thể chất cũng khiến cho đàn ông có tính cạnh tranh cao trong những cuộc thi đấu.
Đoạn body 2 lật ngược lại vấn đề, và nêu bật vai trò của nam và nữ trong xã hội và khẳng định nữ giới cũng có những cơ hội ngang bằng đàn ông. Do đó, những định kiến về tính cạnh tranh không còn phù hợp trong một số khía cạnh nhất định trong cuộc sống.
Đối với mỗi đoạn, tác giả nêu rõ luận điểm với các cụm từ chỉ dẫn ‘on the one/ other hand’, ‘furthermore’, ‘to begin with’, ‘second’,… và bổ sung bằng những luận cứ phía sau. Việc sử dụng những tính từ ghép như ‘dual-income’ hay ‘male-dominated’ giúp tăng tính học thuật của bài viết, từ đó giúp bạn ghi điểm lexical resource.
Có thể bạn quan tâm: Làm gì khi bị bí ý tưởng Writing Task 2?
|The graph below shows how people bought music from 2011 to 2018.|
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.
The line graph illustrates the percentage of three different options of music purchasing from 2011 to 2018.
Overall, the percentage of downloads and CDs purchased has decreased, however the percentage of streams purchased has climbed dramatically throughout the time period represented.
CDs had the largest proportion of all three ways in 2011, at around 55 percent, compared to over a third for downloads and 5% for streaming in 2011. The proportion of CDs sold decreased during the next four years, while the proportion of streaming increased by around 10%. Meanwhile, downloads have continuously climbed, surpassing CDs in 2013 and reaching a high of over 40% in 2014.
From 2014 onwards, there was a progressive decline in download sales, which eventually made up for 30 percent in 2018. During the same time period, the percentage of CDs sold continued to rise, reaching slightly over 40% in 2018, after exceeding CDs and downloads in 2016 and 2017. CD sales, on the other hand, steadily declined to about a quarter of overall music sales by the conclusion of the decade.
- Surpass (v): vượt hơn
- A progressive decline (n): sự sụt giảm theo thời gian
- Exceed (v): vượt trội
|Businesses try to use a lot of methods to increase sales of their products. What are the methods? Which one is the best?|
With the market being in harsh competition regularly, businesses are driven to apply a number of strategies to increase their sales income. These, in my opinion, usually have to do with marketing and innovation, with the latter being the most effective. During my essay, this perspective would be analysed before coming to a rational conclusion.
As a matter of fact, the majority of businesses prefer to grow sales through ad campaigns and new items. The importance of marketing and advertising is self-evident. To be more specific, most large corporations set aside a significant amount of their budget for television commercials, web marketing, billboards, and other forms of advertising. Companies that succeed at viral marketing, such as Apple, may consistently outperform the competition by increasing brand recognition and sales. In addition, the launch of new items is a significant accelerator. This can include new menu items, such as the recent success of a new bubble tea, as well as technical advancements, such as Vinfast’s electric cars.
Though advertising may be quite compelling, nothing outperforms a truly groundbreaking and one-of-a-kind product. The iPhone, the most successful consumer electronics device in history, is the finest example of this. There was no equivalent product when it first came out, with the closest competitor being the tech behemoth Nokia. Users could use the iPhone to make phone calls, send text messages, snap photographs, check their email, and browse the internet. These are now standard features, but at the time, they spurred quick revenue development, and numerous other businesses rushed to copy their success. This strategy may be used in a variety of sectors since a new product can boost demand while a company’s supply chain is maintained.
Finally, strong marketing techniques and successful innovation increase sales, with the latter being the single most effective strategy for increasing revenue. Companies should first strike a balance between the two methods while also prioritizing fresh ideas wherever feasible.
- Harsh competition (n): cạnh tranh khốc liệt
- Self-evident (adj): hiển nhiên
- Outperform (v): vượt trội về tính năng
- Brand recognition (n): nhận diện thương hiệu
- Compelling (adj): hấp dẫn, thu hút sự chú ý
- Spur (v): thúc đẩy, tạo ra
|The bar charts below provide information about percentages of students who are proficient in a foreign language in different countries.|
The bar graph depicts the proportion of male and female students in six nations who have a good command of a foreign language.
Overall, it could be observed that female students are clearly more skilled in a second language than male students, with the proportion of such fluent students being comparatively higher in India and Romania.
As seen in the diagram, India has the largest proportion of learners fluent in a foreign language, with around 68 percent female students and over a half of male students being able to communicate in a second language. In Romania, around 65 percent of female students and little over 40 percent of male students are multilingual.
Interestingly, in all nations except Thailand where the male-to-female ratio is 30 percent, the rate of students with foreign language skills is greater among girls than boys. Subsequently, Vietnam has a higher proportion of pupils who know a second language than China and Russia. Last but not least, China has the lowest rate of such students, with only 20-30% of students knowing a second dialect.
- Have a good command of (v): nắm vững 1 kỹ năng
- Multilingual (adj): có thể sử dụng nhiều ngôn ngữ
- Dialect (n): ngôn ngữ phụ, ngôn ngữ không chính thức
|Some people believe that it is a good idea to continue to work at their old age. To what extent do you agree or disagree?|
Many people believe that older people should be permitted to work past the age of retirement. This is, in my opinion, appropriate for a minority of people who are still capable of working, but the majority should pursue other interests.
On the one hand, many senior citizens find fulfillment in their employment. When their mental and physical health has not yet started to decline severely, this is the case on point. Those in technical or artistic fields, such as designers, artists, performers, and poets, are the finest examples of this. These people frequently produce their finest work later in life. Furthermore, elderly adults with less attractive employment may be without a family to spend time with and require the emotional and financial support that a job may provide. Various retired people in many nations feel adrift and without purpose or security since they may not have a job.
Most elderly individuals, on the other hand, struggle to adjust to societal changes and would be better suited to enjoy their retirement. Most employment nowadays demands at least a rudimentary understanding of technology, and elderly persons might be a barrier in such situations. This is bad for the company, but it’s much worse for the older employee, who may feel unwelcome. Instead, elderly adults can devote more time to their families and follow their interests and pastimes if they have the financial resources to do so. Many retirees, for example, might spend time and energy studying hobbies like carpentry and painting, allowing them to express themselves artistically and obtain a new feeling of fulfillment.
Ultimately, the few elderly persons who are still capable of performing high-level jobs should not be prevented from doing so, while the majority of them should retire with dignity. For older generations, this is the most practical solution.
- Fulfillment (n): sự thoả mãn
- Societal change (n): những thay đổi về chất trong xã hội
- Rudimentary (adj): cơ bản, đơn giản
- Dignity (n): nhân phẩm, đạo đức
Có thể bạn quan tâm: 24 chủ đề phổ biến trong IELTS Writing Task 2 bạn phải biết
|The table below shows the percentages of individuals under the age of 18 and over 60 in California, Utah, and Florida, as well as their average annual income and impoverished population.|
Overall, Florida clearly has more older individuals than California and Utah, and residents of Florida and California possess greater incomes while having a higher percentage of the population living in poverty.
Utah has the highest percentage of young individuals under the age of 18 (28%) followed by California (17%) and Florida (16%). It is interesting to notice that Florida, which has the lowest percentage of persons under the age of 18, has the largest percentage of people aged 60 and older (23 percent), while Utah has the lowest rate (about one-third that of Florida for the same age group).
Despite having the greatest average annual income per person ($23,000) of the three states, 16 percent of California inhabitants are poor. In comparison, only 9% of Utah residents live in poverty, despite the fact that the state’s average emolument is barely $17,000.
- Impoverish (adj): nghèo
- possess (v): sở hữu
- emolument (n): lương, thu nhập
|Computer use is rising rapidly in today’s world, to the point where it has become an accepted element of modern civilization. They may even grow smarter than humans, according to scientists. Some see it as a positive idea, while others see it as a detrimental one. Before coming to a sensible conclusion, this article would analyze the merits and downsides of such a situation.|
Obviously, there are a plethora of benefits coming from this trend. One of the most significant advantages of computers is that they have made everyone’s life easier and more convenient. For example, unlike a library or an office, it is more commodious to sit at home and conduct internet research using a computer that is available 24 hours a day. Furthermore, computer technology allows workers in various nations to communicate with one another via email, online networks, and video conferencing. It provides users with the opportunity to save both time and money. Furthermore, computers have automated workplaces, education, finance, and even treatment and crime detection, all of which have been made feasible by strong computer technology.
However, there are certain drawbacks to this evolution. Most importantly, it has the potential to throw society off balance. For example, offices may be phased out in the future, and virtual online offices may take their place. As a result, people would possibly become sluggish, which is a critical issue as it concerns how humans evolve without the ability to socialize. On top of that, they are working to increase unemployment rates. Since both the efficiency and productivity of computerized robots are superior to human workforce, especially in manual labours, most of the entry-level or repetitive jobs would be replaced by machines, leading to an insurmountable number of impoverished ex-workers. This, eventually, would create immense pressure over the welfare system.
To summarize, it is a positive development for human life, but it also has negative consequences. In my opinion, as human beings are the creators of machines, it is possible to have control over the matter, with high caution.
- detrimental (adj): xấu, tiêu cực
- merit (n): mặt tốt, mặt tích cực
- a plethora of: 1 số lượng đáng kể
- commodious (adj): thoải mái như ở nhà
- feasible (adj): hợp lý, phù hợp
- Phase out (v): biến mất, tan biến
- Insurmountable (adj): gần như không thể giải quyết
Đề thi IELTS Writing Tháng 11/2021
|The maps below show a plan of a city in 1950 and at the present. |
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.
The diagrams illustrate the changes occurring in a city, recorded in the year 1950 and the present day.
The initial impression from the maps is that the city showed an expansion of most infrastructures, from the residential area, the major roads to the city airport.
It can be seen that there is an upsurge of 10 times in the city’s population, which promotes the extension of the residential area. A new major road leading from the west to the east of the town was built, and the business district in the center of the city was accordingly expanded. Along the river also appeared a new lake, passing through the residential area in the middle.
To the east of the town, a dam was newly constructed, and the nearby airport witnessed a three-fold increase in size. To the south of the river, the former government building was reduced in size, while a bigger one was erected opposite to it, across the main road.
- Upsurge (n): sự tăng trưởng mạnh
- Accordingly (adv): kéo theo đó
- Three-fold (adj): gấp 3 lần
- Erect (v): xây dựng lên
- Đối với sơ đồ này, ta thấy được sự thay đổi lớn nhất nằm ở sự mở rộng của tất cả các cơ sở hạ tầng trong thành phố. Sơ đồ trước – sau không có quá nhiều sự dịch chuyển mà chỉ xây mới và mở rộng thêm. Do đó, ta sử dụng nhiều những động từ như: showed an expansion, extension, expanded, witnessed a three-fold increase, appeared, newly constructed, erected,…
- Hai đoạn ở thân bài được viết tách ra giúp bố cục dễ nhìn; Đoạn đầu nói về những sự thay đổi lớn ở trung tâm thành phố như residential area, business district, major road và lake; Đoạn tiếp theo mô tả các thành phần nhỏ xung quanh như airport, dam, government building,…
- Luôn để ý lồng ghép các từ chỉ vị trí, phương hướng: leading from the west to the east, along the river, to the east of the town, to the south of the river, nearby, opposite, across,…để người đọc dễ hình dung ra bố cục của toàn sơ đồ.
|Some people think that children should begin their formal education at a very early age. Some think they should begin at 7 years old at least. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.|
While some feel that children should begin formal education as soon as possible, others disagree and believe that it should not begin until they are seven years old. Both opinions would be carefully discussed throughout the essay before a sensible conclusion could be reached.(1)
Those who argue for starting sooner do so for a variety of reasons.(2) To begin with (3), they think that the sooner a youngster begins to study, the greater his or her intellect becomes. This is due to the fact that they will have an advantage over those who begin later and fall behind. Another advantage is that (4) while they strive for the highest grades and to finish their assignments alone, children will learn to be competitive, autonomous, and driven. These are powerful arguments in a society where the top achievers are rewarded with the best employment.
Despite these considerations, I believe that beginning at the age of seven is the best option.(5) This is because (6) overburdening children with academic work and attempting to outperform others merely causes stress. This is a detrimental condition for children, who should be taught to enjoy their life rather than compete with their classmates. Focusing on play-based programs at home or elsewhere also helps to enhance cognitive capacities. Youngsters in nations like Sweden and Finland, for example(7), begin formal education later and achieve higher educational results than children in many other countries. As a result, its advantages are well-documented.
In conclusion, I think that children should start school later because they can learn more through play-based activities than formal education. Formal schooling begins at a young age, yet it just causes stress and does not help children obtain higher grades in the long run. (8)
- Intellect (n): trí tuệ
- Strive for (v): nhằm tới, hướng tới
- Autonomous (adj): tự giác
- Outperform (v): vượt trội
- Cognitive capacities (n): năng lực tư duy
(1): Mở bài paraphrase lại đề + trả lời câu hỏi. Đối với dạng bài discuss both views and give your opinion thì ngay trong phần mở bài phải khẳng định rằng mình sẽ giải quyết tất cả những vấn đề đó -> giúp người đọc có cái nhìn tổng quan về những nội dung bên dưới.
(2): Đoạn đầu tiên nói về khía cạnh thứ nhất, do đó phải có câu dẫn; Tiếp theo sau sẽ là những luận điểm mở đầu bằng các cụm từ (3), (4), cuối cùng là đưa các luận cứ để bảo vệ cho ý kiến vừa đưa ra.
(5): Chuyển qua khía cạnh tiếp theo phải có câu dẫn; Tiếp đến là dẫn chứng và ví dụ (6), (7) để làm rõ ý tưởng.
(8): Kết bài không nêu ý tưởng mới, chỉ tổng kết lại những điều đã nói ở trên một cách ngắn gọn.
|The graph below compares changes in the birth rates of China and the USA between 1920 – 2000.|
Summaries the infomation by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.
A quick glance at the graph reveals some startling parallels between Chinese and American birth rates from 1920 to 2000.
Overall, it is clear that fertility levels in both countries fluctuated significantly, with lows in the 1940s and highs in the 1950s.
Initially, China’s birth rate rose from 10 percent in 1920 to 15 percent in 1935 before plummeting to only a third of that in the 1940s. Following that, the country saw exponential expansion, with fertility reaching a high of one-fifth of the total in the 1950s. However, in the latter part of the century, this figure began to fall steadily. 1
In the meantime, the US birth rate ranged between 11 and 13 percent before 1940, before plummeting to fewer than 5 percent in 1945. The following five years witnessed a dramatic rise in this rate, reaching perhaps about 15 percent in 1950, before experiencing a significant drop. 2
It is also worth noting that, while both countries’ birth rates were close until 1950, the difference between them expanded after that as China’s fertility declined. 3
- Startling parallels (n): con số trái ngược cùng thời điểm
- Lows/ highs (n): mức thấp/ mức cao
- Exponential (adj): ở mức độ nhanh và đột ngột
- Fertility (n): tỉ lệ sinh
→ Nhìn chung ta thấy tỷ lệ sinh ở cả 2 nước có sự tương đồng, khi cả 2 line nhấp nhô không đều ở những năm đầu tiên và giảm dần về cuối. Ở mỗi đoạn (1), (2) ta phân tích từng line dành cho từng nước để tạo sự rõ ràng, dễ theo dõi. Tuy nhiên ở đoạn (3) cần tạo sự kết nối giữa 2 line để tránh làm bài viết bị rời rạc.
Bên cạnh đó, ta không chỉ sử dụng các số cụ thể để miêu tả số liệu mà làm tròn thành ‘one fifth’, ‘a third’, hoặc dùng các từ miêu tả không tuyệt đối ‘about 15%’, ‘between 11 and 13’, hay ‘fewer than 5%’,…Việc này sẽ giúp tránh được sự chủ quan trong bài viết, do số liệu trong hình không quá rõ ràng.
Việc sử dụng các động từ tăng/ giảm cũng cần linh hoạt, tránh diễn đạt lặp đi lặp lại xuyên suốt bài viết.
|Some people think that big companies should provide sports and social facilities for the local community. To what extent do you agree or disagree?|
The question of whether large-scale corporations should help the local community by establishing recreational facilities is a point of controversy. While there are clear financial ramifications to this decision, I am certain that the aforementioned strategy can be demonstrated to be a win-win scenario for both businesses and the general population.1
To begin with 2, the execution of this strategy is likely to benefit the local community greatly. To be more specific 3, the presence of a well-equipped sports club in the neighborhood with sponsorships might pave the route to success for many young athletes who are typically denied such opportunities due to financial constraints. Furthermore 4, providing free local commuting, bus shelters, and medical camps in the neighborhood benefits many individuals in need. One of the largest banks, for example 5, supports the annual marathon in my hometown and grants a prize to the victor, so helping local runners.
Further investigation reveals that large-scale corporations are anticipated to benefit equally. Sponsoring social events may appear to be a quick way to improve brand awareness and develop a good image of the firm at first. Simply said 6, huge corporations may acquire the trust of the local populace through these events, as well as their visible support in the company’s future endeavors. To give an example 7, Alphabet Inc., a global corporation, has a specific department called corporate social responsibility that supports the local community, earning it a strong humanitarian reputation.
To summarize, I believe that 8 corporate sponsorship of sports or social activities may be beneficial to both the company and the local community. As a result, it is preferable for businesses to contribute more, which will be returned to them in the form of goodwill and increased brand visibility.9
- Ramification (n): tác động, kết quả
- A win-win scenario (n): tình huống đôi bên đều có lợi
- Execution (n): sự thi hành 1 chính sách
- Financial constraint (n): hạn chế về mặt tài chính
- Brand awareness (n): nhận dạng thương hiệu
- Endeavour (n): sự nỗ lực đáng ghi nhận
- Goodwill (n): ý định tốt đẹp
(1): Luôn trả lời câu hỏi đề bài, khẳng định quan điểm ngay từ mở bài;
(2), (4): Cụm từ chỉ dẫn khi muốn chuyển sang một ý mới;
(3), (6): Tương tự ‘in other words’, sử dụng khi muốn giải thích một vấn đề một cách dễ hiểu hơn;
(5), (7): Cụm từ chỉ dẫn cho các minh chứng, ví dụ,…Có thể thay bằng ‘for instance’ hoặc ‘take…as an example’;
(8): Thể hiện quan điểm cá nhân;
(9): Kết bài luôn mở đầu bằng Concluding phrase: ‘to summarize’, ‘to sum up’, ‘in conclusion’,…và khẳng định lại quan điểm theo các ý đã trình bày ở trên.
→ Bài viết sử dụng nhiều cấu trúc câu linh hoạt: S(V-ing) + V + O (providing free local commuting, ….benefits many individuals in need); It is + adjective + to + V (it is preferable for businesses to contribute more); Thể bị động (Further investigation … are anticipated to benefit equally),…giúp mạch văn chuyển đổi tự nhiên, tăng điểm ngữ pháp.
|The pie chat shows the amount of money that a children’s charity located in the USA spent and received in one year, 2016.|
Summarize the information by selecting and reporting the main features and make comparisons where relevant.
The two pie charts that resulted show the revenue and spending percentages of a children’s charity in the United States in 2016.
Overall, it is apparent that the charity benefited the most from donation of food , while they spent a large amount on program services. Furthermore, expenditures were marginally lower than total revenue sources.1
This charitable organization’s primary source of financing, as shown in the first pie chart, was donated groceries. This category provided almost 86 percent of overall funding, with community contributions accounting for the second-largest amount of 10.4 percent. All other revenue sources together generated roughly 3 percent of overall income, with program revenue accounting for 2.2 percent. Government grants represented only 0.2 percent of overall earnings, which was insignificant in comparison to the charity’s other sources of income.2
Program services, on the other hand, composed for over 96 percent of total spending. The remaining 4 percent was allocated to fundraising, administration, and other general expenses.3
- Revenue (n): nguồn thu
- Charitable (adj): mang tính chất từ thiện
- To be allocated to (v): được phân bổ cho
- Government grants (n): tiền hỗ trợ từ chính phủ
(1): Nhìn chung ta thấy nguồn tiền thu vào cao hơn tiền chi tiêu; Nguồn thu chủ yếu là thực phẩm (donated food) và quỹ từ thiện này tiêu hầu hết tiền cho các chương trình (program services);
(2): Đoạn này dùng để mô tả biểu đồ bên trái, sử dụng các mẫu câu khác nhau để thể hiện tỷ lệ: ‘…provided almost 86 percent’, ‘…accounting for the second-largest amount of 10.4 percent’, ‘…generated roughly 3 percent’, ‘…government grants represented only 0.2 percent’,… Những cách nói này cùng thể hiện một ý tưởng, tuy nhiên lại đa dạng và không làm mạch văn bị lặp cấu trúc;
(3): Mô tả ngắn gọn biểu đồ bên phải, vì ít nhóm số liệu và chỉ có 1 nhóm chiếm phần lớn; những phần còn lại gộp thông tin vì không quá quan trọng.
|Research has shown that the transportation of products and people are the main source of pollution. Some people believe the Government should be in charge of this, while others believe it is the fault of individuals. Discuss both views and give your opinion.|
There can be no doubt that the relentless rise in the number of products and people transported contributes substantially to pollution. Whether the authorities are to blame or whether everyone is to fault is a point of contention. Personally, I believe the government and individuals are equally responsible in this scenario.1
On the one hand 2, proponents of the former viewpoint may argue that the huge transportation is due to government incompetence and inadequate solutions. Authorities in various places of the world have undoubtedly failed to establish strict laws to limit the number of private automobiles and commodities delivery, resulting in an overburdened transportation system. Furthermore 4, it is thought by many that it is the government’s responsibility to address all social issues, including environmental problems. As a result 5, while product and person transportation is left unregulated and continues to increase pollution, the government will be held responsible.
On the other hand 3, advocates of the concept that people are to blame for rising levels of excessive mobility have grounds to believe that this is due to a lack of public knowledge. Without a doubt, most people in numerous countries have yet to recognize their responsibility to make a deliberate effort to abandon private vehicles such as cars or motorcycles in favor of environmentally friendly modes of transportation. As a result of this erroneous social conscience6, there is a risk of an increase in the use of such transportation for personal reasons and for the distribution of goods.
To sum up, I believe that the widespread use of vehicles as a major source of pollution should be blamed equally on both governments and individuals, due to ineffective government actions and a lack of private concern for pollution.7
- Relentless (adj): không ngừng nghỉ
- A point of contention (n): vấn đề cần quan tâm
- Scenario (n): kịch bản, tình huống
- Incompetence (n): sự yếu kém về năng lực
- Commodities(n): nhu yếu phẩm, hàng hoá thiết yếu
- Be held responsible (v): chịu trách nhiệm
- Excessive (adj): thừa
- Deliberate effort (n): sự nỗ lực có chuẩn bị trước
- Erroneous (adj): đầy sai sót
Đề bài yêu cầu đánh giá cả hai mặt của vấn đề, do đó bố cục phải được chia thành 2 đoạn body, trong đó mỗi đoạn bàn luận về một khía cạnh;
Việc tối ưu được vài cụm từ hay giúp bài viết tăng tính học thuật: ‘failed to establish’ (thay cho ‘not able to establish’), ‘is left unregulated’ (thay cho ‘be not regulated’), ‘have yet to recognize’ (thay cho cannot recognize),…
(1): Đưa ra quan điểm ngay trong đoạn mở bài, khẳng định cả nhà nước và người dân đều có trách nhiệm ngang nhau trong vấn đề bảo vệ môi trường. Điều này sẽ giúp giám khảo có cái nhìn tổng quát ngay từ những dòng đầu tiên của bài viết;
(2) & (3): Cặp từ thường dùng trong dạng bài này, dùng làm câu bắt đầu cho mỗi khía cạnh trong bài viết;
(4) – (6): Các từ thể hiện quan hệ nguyên nhân, kết quả, hoặc bổ sung thêm ý tưởng;
(7): Kết bài không nêu ý tưởng mới, chỉ gom lại ngắn gọn những điều đã trình bày ở trên.
|The two tables below show the number of international student from different resource coutries in Canada and the USA in two school years.|
The two tables give some information about the number of international students in Canada and the USA in the school years from 2002 to 2004.
Overall, the number of foreign students in the United States decreased while the number of international students in Canada followed an upward trend, despite the fact that the former dominated the latter.1
In the two school years, the overall number of overseas students in Canada climbed by 17 per cent, from around 60 thousand to 70 thousand. The largest rise among these three resource nations came from Chinese students, who increased by 45 per cent from over 5000 students. The United States and India both saw developments of 9 per cent and 35 per cent, respectively. Besides, the figure for India was around half of that of the USA.2
Nevertheless, between 2002 and 2004, the total number of overseas students in the United States fell by 2 per cent, from over 580 thousand to 570 thousand. The number of foreign students from China and Canada has increased by around 6 per cent. During these two school years, however, the number of Indian students witnessed a drop by nearly a tenth, despite the fact that India remained the biggest resource country in the United States.3
- Dominate (v): vượt trội
- Follow an upward/ downward trend (v): có xu hướng tăng/ giảm
- Witness a drop (v): giảm
(1): Nhìn chung thì số lượng học sinh, sinh viên ở Mỹ cao hơn số lượng ở Canada, nhưng Mỹ có xu hướng giảm (-2%) trong khi Canada tăng mạnh (+17%). Do đó ta lồng ghép khéo léo cấu trúc ‘Despite + noun phrase’ để thể hiện sự đối lập này.
(2) & (3): Phân tích những thay đổi cụ thể về số lượng học sinh, sinh viên của từng nước qua các năm học; Tuy nhiên lưu ý gom thông tin và tránh trình bày tất cả các số liệu có trong bảng; Nên dựa vào những số liệu lớn nhất, nhỏ nhất, những số liệu có thể so sánh tương quan lẫn nhau hoặc có phần trăm thay đổi đáng kể.
|Nowadays, a lot of offices have open-space designs instead of separate rooms. Do the advantages outweigh the disadvantages?|
These days, many offices choose open floor plans to more traditional, compartmentalized layouts. Despite the low efficiency improvements, this is a positive change in my perspective because of the social and workplace benefits which would be analysed objectively during the course of the essay. 1
An open layout, on the one hand, can diminish efficiency.2 Individuals who work in private offices or cubicles are less likely to be bothered, which allows them to work more efficiently. Each time a person is stopped, they must not only stop working, but it may also take an indefinite length of time for them to regain attention. Various interruptions can significantly diminish the amount of work performed over the course of a day. According to recent studies,3 while office communication is useful in other ways, it does result in a decrease in total work output. As a result 4, an office attempting to maximize output should place a premium on private working areas.
On the other hand, increased communication is a social and creative blessing.5 The offices of many pioneers in technological firms or social media platforms are a good example of this.6 They design offices so that people can meet in common spaces and so that interactions between different departments of the organization are easier. Individuals can establish friends and enjoy each other’s company during the workday, which has a huge impact on morale. Furthermore, the primary goal of this design is to encourage innovation.7 Employees are more likely to blend multiple ideas and be more inventive in their job if they meet with others on a frequent basis.
To summarize, while there may be minor productivity costs, this is a positive shift because it allows people to converse and be more creative. From my own perspective, instead of being the exception, such offices should become the norm.8
- Compartmentalized (adj): chia thành các khu vực nhỏ
- Cubicles (n): văn phòng cá nhân
- Place a premium on (v): ưu tiên cho, tập trung vào
Bài viết phân tích cả 2 mặt của vấn đề để từ đó đưa ra nhận định rằng đây là một xu hướng tích cực hay tiêu cực. Mỗi đoạn của thân bài sẽ tương ứng với một luận điểm lớn và tiếp theo sau sẽ là những lý lẽ, dẫn chứng, ví dụ minh hoạ,…để ủng hộ cho luận điểm vừa đưa ra.
Xây dựng văn phòng kiểu mới có thể gây ra sự xao nhãng và dễ gây ảnh hưởng đến chất lượng công việc vì có thể sẽ không phù hợp với tất cả mọi đối tượng; Tuy nhiên, kiến trúc hiện đại lại đem đến làn gió mới, giúp cho con người có thể kết nối, trao đổi ý tưởng và tăng cường tính sáng tạo trong công việc. Mỗi ý tưởng được làm sáng bằng những luận cứ cụ thể để khiến bài viết thêm thuyết phục.
(1): Mở bài paraphrase lại câu hỏi của đề; Đồng thời thể hiện quan điểm đồng tình (a positive change) và nêu được bài viết sẽ trình bày những nội dung gì;
(2), (5), (7): Trình bày luận điểm mới sẽ có cụm từ chỉ dẫn;
(3), (6): Trình bày ví dụ cụ thể;
(4): Liên từ thể hiện mối quan hệ nhân – quả.
(8): Khẳng định lại quan điểm cá nhân.
Đề thi IELTS Writing Tháng 12/2021
|The graph below shows information on employment rates across 6 countries in 1995 and 2005.|
The column graph depicts changes in employment rates in six countries: Australia, Switzerland, Ireland, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, and the United States between 1995 and 2005.
Overall, employment rates in these nations have improved while women made significant strides in the workplace.
In most nations, it is evident that women had lower employment rates. In Australia, for example, 57 percent of men worked in 1995, but only 27 percent of women did. In Iceland, where more than 70% of males were working class, the employment rate for women was around 40% in the same period.
The improvement in employment between 1995 and 2005 is the graph’s second most prominent trend. Both men and women’s employment rates improved in all of the nations listed. The largest shift occurred in the United Kingdom, when males went up from 55% in 1995 to 73% in 10 years. Furthermore, women’s employment rates increased at a considerably faster rate in New Zealand. Over the decade, the percentage of working women increased from 25% to 42% in the United Kingdom, and from 45% to 61% in the United States. Over the last 10 years, both men and women’s wages have grown by at least 12% in these nations.
- Stride (n): 1 bước tiến đáng kể
- Working class (n): (thuộc về) giai cấp lao động
- Prominent (adj): quan trọng, chiếm ưu thế
- Occur (v): diễn ra, xảy ra
Nhìn chung ta thấy tỉ lệ việc làm ở các nước đều có xu hướng tăng, và số lượng phụ nữ tham gia vào lực lượng lao động luôn thấp hơn số lượng nam giới, nhưng có bước tiến lớn qua các năm.
Sau khi phân tích xu hướng, đoạn tiếp theo so sánh số liệu giữa nam và nữ ở các nước năm 1995, trong đó nêu lên 2 nước nổi bật là Australia và Iceland. Không cần nêu hết số liệu để tránh dài dòng.
Đoạn cuối cùng đánh giá sự tăng trưởng về số liệu ở các nước từ 1995 đến 2005. Tại đây phân tích các nước còn lại (UK, New Zealand, USA), sử dụng các động từ thể hiện sự tăng ‘increase’, ‘go up’, ‘grow’ ở thì quá khứ đơn và kết nối với nhau bằng các liên từ ‘furthermore’, ‘and’.
|The major cities in the world are growing fast, as well as their problems. What are the problems that young people living in cities are facing? Give solutions to this.|
In the expectation of a better future, a rising number of individuals are migrating to metropolitan cities, alongside with a host of problems. This essay would attempt to look at some of the issues that come with living in a city, as well as some of the steps that governments may take to enhance the quality of life for all city dwellers.
Traffic congestion is one of the most serious issues that city people face.1 Increased wasted travel time causes not only stress and exhaustion, but also affects job performance and satisfaction. On their route to and from work, city commuters frequently spend a large portion of time stuck in traffic. Another disadvantage of living in a big city is the poor air quality that has resulted from the huge increase in hazardous emissions from power plants and industrial sites in recent years.2 Communities with severe air pollution have an increased risk of lung cancer, asthma attacks, and other respiratory ailments.
There are several options that city authorities should use to address the issues listed above.3 To begin, public transportation should then be improved to make it more appealing to the general population.4 Since more individuals choose to take buses or commuter trains instead of driving their own cars, the traffic problem would be effectively solved. To dissuade cars from traveling during rush hours, the government may propose collecting peak-hour tolls. On top of that, stronger restrictions should be enforced to limit harmful gas emissions and encourage the use of more ecologically friendly energy sources in order to enhance air quality in metropolitan areas.5
In conclusion, different measures might be adopted to alleviate traffic congestion and air pollution, which are the two major issues that face metropolitan living.
- Metropolitan cities (n): thành phố lớn
- City dweller (n): dân thành thị
- Commuters (n): dân công sở, dân đi làm hàng ngày
- Hazardous (adj): độc hại
- Dissuade (v): thuyết phục việc từ bỏ 1 việc gì đó
- Alleviate (v): giảm nhẹ
Mở bài paraphrase đề bài + nêu ra những nội dung chính sẽ trình bày phía dưới (nêu thực trạng và cách giải quyết)
Body 1 nêu ngắn gọn những vấn đề lớn đối với người trẻ (1), (2). Mỗi ý tưởng đều được bắt đầu bằng câu nêu luận điểm rõ ràng và đi kèm với 1-2 dẫn chứng để làm rõ ý. Body 2 đưa ra cách giải quyết, bắt đầu bằng câu chỉ dẫn (3) và nêu 2 giải pháp (4), (5) tương ứng với từng vấn đề ở đoạn trên.
Kết bài khẳng định lại lần nữa về mức độ nghiêm trọng của 2 vấn đề và đưa ra quan điểm rằng chúng nên được giải quyết triệt để.
|The charts below show the proportion of holidaymakers using four different types of accommodations in three different years.|
Summaries the information by selecting and reporting the main features and make comparisons where relevant.
The pie charts compare the proportion of holidaymakers who stayed with family and friends, hotels, rental apartments and camping between the years 1988 and 2008.
Overall, the number of tourists who stayed with family and friends is far higher than that of those who preferred the other three categories of lodging. Furthermore, the percentage of people who stayed with family and friends and went camping decreased, while the percentage of people who stayed in hotels and rented apartments elevated.
In 1988, little over half of vacationers stayed with friends, while the outdoor type accounted for over half of all holidaymakers. Both of these figures eventually declined, and in 2008, over 40% of people chose to spend their vacations with family and friends, with just 12% opting to camp out.
In contrast, the percentage of vacationers who rented houses and stayed in hotels increased with time. Only 7% of people stayed in rental flats in 1988, compared to 15% who stayed in hotels. After 20 years, the percentage for both rental flats and hotels was over a fifth.
- Rental apartments (n): căn hộ dịch vụ
- Lodging (n): nơi ở tạm thời
- Elevate (v): tăng cao
- Opt (v): lựa chọn
Nhìn chung, xuyên suốt các năm, đa số khách du lịch đều chọn ở nhà gia đình, người thân. Tuy nhiên số lượng này có xu hướng giảm qua thời gian và mọi người chuyển dần sang thuê khách sạn hoặc căn hộ.
Bài viết nêu số lượng phần trăm của các mô hình lưu trú theo từng năm, tuy nhiên chọn lọc những số liệu nổi bật (năm 1988 nói về Staying with friends và camping – 2 số liệu lớn nhất, và đồng thời so sánh với năm 2008, vì cả 2 nhóm này đều có xu hướng giảm). Đoạn tiếp theo phân tích số liệu của Hotel và Apartment, vì chúng có xu hướng tăng (ngược lại so với thông tin ở đoạn trước).
|Some people think that schools should select students according to their academic abilities, while others believe that it is better to have students with different abilities studying together. Discuss both views and state your own opinion.|
There are differing views on whether or not it is beneficial to the educational system to segregate students based on their academic aptitude into distinct schools. Some argue that having pupils in mixed ability schools is better for their growth. When student classifications are adopted, however, I reckon it will be more successful and efficient in terms of both teaching and learning.
Students of varied abilities learning together are clearly more likely to produce favorable outcomes in all-around ability development. Mixed-ability classrooms allow students to learn from one another, necessary to gain skills that they did not have before. A youngster with strong academic abilities, for example, can learn to dance or paint from friends who are less intellectually rigorous but more artistic. Mixed classrooms help students to develop their multidimensional abilities rather than a particular academic aptitude in this manner.
Despite the aforementioned rationale, I contend that categorizing students benefits both instructors and students. Teachers will find it easier to find appropriate teaching approaches for a group of pupils with similar academic abilities. Streaming students makes it easier for teachers than mixed ability courses, where teachers must acknowledge the ability gaps among each student. As a result, students benefit from this approach since unique teaching techniques, timeframes, and teaching materials are given to various schools in order to allow more specialized learning. In this approach, the narrower the dispersion, the easier it will be to teach and the more successful it will be to learn.
To summarize, mixed-ability classrooms help students to develop a broad range of skills; yet, student classifications permit more targeted teaching and learning, which has been shown to be more successful and efficient.
- Segregate (v): phân tách, chia thành nhóm
- Aptitude (n): năng lực
- Intellectually rigorous (adj): năng lực thông minh cao
- Multidimensional (adj): đa dạng, đa chiều
- Rationale (n): lý do, luận điểm
- Dispersion (n): sự phân bổ, sự đa dạng
Bài viết phân tích cả 2 khía cạnh của vấn đề (đáp ứng yêu cầu đề bài), tuy nhiên ngay trong mở bài tác giả đưa ra quan điểm rằng nên phân chia học sinh ra theo khả năng để có được sự phát triển tốt nhất.
Đoạn body 1 nói về những lợi ích mà học sinh sẽ nhận được khi học chung với các học sinh khác. Chúng sẽ có cơ hội quan sát, học hỏi những kỹ năng của các bạn cùng lớp, từ đó có thể phát hiện ra những tài năng mới hoặc giúp đỡ nhau đi lên trong học tập.
Mặt khác, đoạn body 2 khẳng định việc phân nhóm học sinh theo khả năng sẽ giúp tạo một một trường hợp lý và dễ dàng hơn cho cả học sinh và giáo viên. Họ sẽ không còn phải lo lắng về khoảng cách quá xa giữa những học sinh giỏi và học sinh yếu kém mà chỉ cần tập trung cho việc dạy và học, từ đó tiết kiệm được thời gian và tăng tính hiệu quả trong học tập.
Kết bài đưa ra quan điểm một lần nữa và khẳng định lại khía cạnh mà chúng ta cảm thấy có lợi hơn.
|The bar chart gives information about the railway system in six cities in Europe.|
Six railways in six European cities are depicted in the diagrams regarding the transporting capacities.
Overall, it could be seen that despite being relatively aged, Lisbon’s system has the most railway commuters while the more modern systems are quite inferior to that.
To begin with, the Lisbon railway station sees approximately 2 billion travellers each year. This overwhelming figure makes it the busiest train station amongst all the six given ones. Following in the second position is Stockholm railway, which was built in the year 1900 is home to over half of the first described figure; nevertheless, Paris, despite having the world’s oldest ( being built in the 19th century), only serves 775 million people annually.
Moving to a more recent group, there are some noticeable features. With 144 million passengers every year, Rome’s railway system, which was constructed in 1976 and 50 years younger than the system of Lisbon, serves nearly three times as many people as Madrid’s. Lastly, Berlin’s system is the only one that was built in the 21st century, only having a capacity of 50 million commuters a year, being the second lowest position.
- Relatively aged (adj): tương đối lâu đời
- Inferior (adj): thấp hơn đáng kể
- Capacity (n): sức chứa
Nhìn chung, mặc dù tàu ở Lisbon có lịch sử khá lâu đời nhưng lại có số lượng hành khách cao nhất trong biểu đồ trong khi các tàu mới hơn thì có ít lượt khách hơn hẳn.
Đoạn body đầu tiên tác giả phân tích các tàu lâu đời: Lisbon có lượng khách cao nhất; Sau đó đến Stockholm và Paris dù có từ lâu nhưng lượt khách chỉ đứng thứ 3. Đoạn body tiếp theo so sánh các ga tàu gần đây hơn bằng cách lần lượt nêu số lượng hành khách. Tuy nhiên để tránh sự rời rạc cho bài thì nên tạo sự liên kết giữa chúng (three times as many people) hoặc thay đổi cấu trúc câu: ‘with 144 million passengers’, ‘having a capacity of 50 million commuters’,…
|The increase in the production of consumer goods results in damage to the natural environment. What are the causes of this? What can be done to solve this problem?|
In contemporary society, more environmental damage is being done to the environment as more consumer items are created. During the course of this essay, I would present possible reasons leading to this situation as well as to propose feasible measures to tackle the issue.
First and foremost, increased consumer product production hurts the environment in two ways: chemical waste from the manufacturing process and mass production of disposable items. More harmful wastes and pollutants are discharged into the environment as more things are created. Many marine and terrestrial creatures have died as a result of compromised water supplies and badly polluted air. In addition, more single-use items, the majority of which are non-biodegradable, are developed to meet customers’ ever-increasing needs. Although these items have a short lifespan, they can linger as garbage for thousands of years, converting our world into a massive landfill and presenting a threat to all living environments.
With the situation mentioned above, actions must be made as soon as feasible to reduce the negative environmental effects of expanding consumer goods consumption. To begin, businesses should promote the use of environmentally friendly materials. Many major coffee shop chains, for example, have lately replaced plastic straws with reusable equivalents made of materials such as paper or bamboo. Furthermore, several governments are pushing the development of more environmentally friendly industrial practices. Many regions around the globe, for example, provide tax advantages and incentives to businesses that use renewable energy, and some enterprises are even permitted to buy green energy at lower costs than traditional fossil fuels.
Finally, there are two major reasons why the increased production of consumer products has a negative influence on the environment. To overcome this issue, governments and businesses must work together to make manufacturing lines more environmentally friendly by using greener materials.
- Contemporary society (n): xã hội ngày nay
- Disposable items (n): sản phẩm dùng 1 lần
- Marine (adj): dưới nước
- Terrestrial (animal): động vật sống trên cạn
- Non-biodegradable (adj): không thể phân huỷ sinh học
- Equivalents (n): sản phẩm thay thế tương đương
Mở bài gián tiếp, mở đầu bằng nhận định chung về tính nghiêm trọng của vấn đề ô nhiễm môi trường; Đồng thời nêu rõ mục đích bài viết sẽ trình bày những hạng mục nào.
Thân bài chia làm 2 đoạn thể hiện 2 mục đích chính: Đoạn 1 nêu nguyên nhân dẫn đến vấn đề (không xử lý rác triệt để dẫn đến ô nhiễm nguồn nước, không khí; Sản xuất hàng loạt những vật dụng khó phân huỷ); Đoạn 2 đưa ra giải pháp tương ứng với những vấn đề vừa đưa ra. Mỗi khi chuyển sang luận điểm mới/ đoạn mới cần có cụm từ chỉ dẫn để dẫn dắt người đọc (First and foremost, to begin, furthermore, for example, finally,…) và đưa ra ví dụ cụ thể để tăng tính thuyết phục cho bài viết.
Kết bài không nêu thêm ý mới, chỉ tổng hợp những ý đã trình bày ở trên bằng những cách diễn đạt khác để tránh lặp từ.
|The graph below gives information about the common activities children of different ages in the United States do as part of their bedtime routines.|
The given graph depicts the general activities that American youngsters choose to perform before going to bed.
Overall, the majority of American children under the age of eight prefer to read before going to bed, but watching TV and eating are regarded to have the opposite trend.
Reading and taking a bath are clearly the top and second most popular nighttime activities among children aged 1-3 years, with over 60% and 40% of them interested in each. In comparison, just under a third of newborns under the age of three clean their teeth before going to sleep, and half of those under the age of three choose to watch TV or eat; yet, children of this age group are still the most interested in showering and eating.
In terms of older children, it could be seen that they follow the opposite trend as children aged 1 to 3 years old, namely, they show a greater interest in reading before bed (up to 70% for ages 4-6 and nearly 60% for ages 6-8, respectively) and they appear to regard brushing teeth as necessary, as the number of children aged 4-8 doing this activity is roughly two-thirds that of their younger counterparts. Bathing and eating are the activities in which the number of older children eager to participate is consistently the lowest and second-lowest, respectively, because only around a third of children want to shower and about under a tenth want to eat.
And, while only around a fifth of older children like watching TV as part of their evening hobby, this percentage is greater than that of newborns, resulting in babies having the lowest rate of participation in this activity (15%).
Nhìn chung ta thấy hầu hết trẻ em ở Mỹ chọn đọc sách trước khi đi ngủ nhiều hơn ăn hoặc xem tivi. Tuy nhiên lưu ý ở đây ta không được đánh giá trend này là tích cực hay tiêu cực, vì nó không được thể hiện trong biểu đồ.
Đi vào phần thân bài, do có rất nhiều cột thông tin nên ta lựa chọn số liệu phù hợp, hoặc gom số liệu để tránh phân tích dài dòng. Cụ thể, đoạn body đầu tiên phân tích số liệu cho trẻ 1-3 tuổi: gom số liệu của Reading và Taking bath, gom số liệu của Watching TV và Eating, đồng thời chỉ ra cột màu xanh dương cao hơn cột đỏ và xanh lá ở Having a bath và Eating, để tạo sự liên kết giữa các nhóm tuổi.
Đoạn body tiếp theo sẽ phân tích 2 nhóm tuổi 4-5 và 6-8, vì chúng đều đi ngược lại với nhóm tuổi 1-3 ở trên: Chọn Reading và Brushing teeth nhiều hơn, nhưng lại e dè hơn trong việc Bathing và Eating.
Cuối cùng, phân tích hoạt động xem TV riêng do có hình pattern khác so với các hoạt động còn lại; trong đó cột màu đỏ cao hơn so với 2 cột màu xanh.
Trong quá trình viết cần paraphrase những từ chỉ trẻ em: American youngsters, children, children aged 1-3 years, newborns under the age of three, younger counterparts,…cũng như các cấu trúc miêu tả số liệu để tránh lặp từ.
|Internet access helps young people and workers achieve their education and work goals more easily than before. To what extent do you agree or disagree?|
The Internet’s arrival transformed the way of thinking and working in the world. Furthermore, the youthful generation is seen to be the most affected by technological advancements, as evidenced by their frequent use of the Internet in daily work. This essay would discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using the Internet for academic and professional purposes.
On the one hand, it is widely accepted that the virtual world plays a critical role in the dissemination of global information. It would be hard for individuals to spread as well as obtain resources and news regarding their connected industries if it were not for the Internet. As a result of the lack of education in traditional textbooks, students and employees’ knowledge would be limited, prohibiting them from gaining talents and working proficiency. Furthermore, the Internet is an interconnection network that allows its users to approach and interact with foreigners, hence expanding education and employment options. For example, through a variety of school and government websites, impoverished students can apply for a variety of scholarships to help pay for the high costs of education in a foreign nation. Therefore, the Internet is undoubtedly helpful in facilitating students and workers to achieve their goals.
Nonetheless, while the internet is a great place to interact, it is not a good idea to rely on it to get information. Little data was helpful or exact when investigating users who had many replies from both first-hand accounts and secondary sources within minutes. Another serious concern is the illegal data-gathering of Internet users in order to swindle or blackmail, which undermines social security. The emergence of false news spread by organisations with secret intentions that watch imprudent people is the most frightening of all the perils of using the Internet. Take the COVID-19 pandemic as an example: anti-vaccine activists have spread misleading information about death tolls following vaccine injections in order to stoke fear and disorder. As a result, individuals must filter out untrustworthy sources of information and remain vigilant when conducting online research.
To summarize, the Internet provides many advantages in terms of transferring information, despite certain disadvantages. Nonetheless, I consider that cyberspace plays an important part in our everyday lives, studies, and jobs; however, people must be sensible and cautious in the use of it in order to maximize the advantages of the Internet while minimizing the hazards.
- Dissemination (n): sự lan truyền có chủ đích
- Impoverished (adj): nghèo, thiếu thốn về tài chính
- Swindle (n/v): lừa gạt, lừa đảo
- Imprudent (adj): ngây thơ, suy nghĩ thiếu sáng suốt
- Vigilant (adj): cảnh giác cao độ
Mở bài đưa ra nhận định chung về việc người trẻ tiếp xúc với Internet nhiều trong công việc hằng ngày, và trình bày nội dung chính của bài viết nói về những điểm tích cực và tiêu cực. Lưu ý cần giới hạn khuôn khổ của bài viết trong việc sử dụng Internet làm công cụ trong học tập và công việc, chứ không mở rộng ra vấn đề giải trí, đời sống,…
Bài viết có 2 đoạn body tương ứng với lợi ích và tác hại của Internet đối với người trẻ. Về mặt tích cực, Internet là công cụ hữu hiệu giúp con người tiếp cận được kiến thức nhanh chóng và dễ dàng để phục vụ cho công việc; Bên cạnh đó Internet cũng mở ra cơ hội học vấn/ việc làm ở khắp nơi trên thế giới nên họ sẽ có nhiều cơ hội để phát triển sự nghiệp. Ngược lại, việc bị đánh cắp thông tin cá nhân hoặc bị nhận thông tin sai lệch là những vấn đề mà Internet gây ra. Mỗi luận điểm được đi kèm với giải thích, ví dụ cụ thể để tăng sức thuyết phục
Kết bài nhấn mạnh lại ý tưởng đã nêu, đồng thời nêu quan điểm rằng nên sử dụng Internet thông minh để khai thác hết tiềm năng, đồng thời né tránh những “bẫy” giăng trên mạng.
|The diagrams show the structure of a solar panel and its use.|
The diagrams that are supplied show how a solar panel is built and utilized.
Overall, the system’s structure is quite simple, and its purpose is to use solar energy to heat either air or water.
In terms of the solar panel’s design, there is a container on either side with an input and an outlet. The inlet allows air and water to enter, while the outlet allows warm air or water to exit. To collect the sun’s rays, a sheet of transparent glass is put above the compartment.
Subsequently, the operation of a solar power system is depicted in the second two diagrams. The sun’s rays on the clear glass are absorbed and turned into energy at the start of the process. The created energy heats the air as it passes through the intake, converting it to warm air. Water is also heated and circulated via a patterned pipe inside the container to make warm water.
- Utilize (v): sử dụng
- Transparent (adj): trong suốt
- Absorb (v): hấp thụ
- Circultate (v): xoay tròn
Đối với phần tổng quan, ta nhận xét về cấu tạo của hệ thống này khá đơn giản và mục đích của nó để thu nhiệt lượng từ mặt trời và tạo ra nước nóng.
Đoạn body đầu tiên phân tích về hình trên cùng bằng cách liệt kê tên các bộ phận cùng với chức năng kèm theo. Sử dụng các mẫu câu đơn giản “There is…”, “…is put above” và nối các danh từ lại bằng liên từ “In terms of…”, “while”,…
Body 2 tiếp tục phân tích cách thức hoạt động của hệ thống này, bằng cách giải thích ngắn gọn quá trình hấp thụ nhiệt từ mặt trời, nhiệt lượng chạy vào ống dẫn, làm nóng nước từ bên trong và chảy ra thông qua ống xả. Sử dụng động từ xen kẽ thể chủ động và bị động (tương tự như miêu tả Process): be absorbed and turned into, heats, passes through,…
|Today family members do not eat meals together. Is this a positive or negative trend?|
There is no denying the reality that the amount of time people spend enjoying meals together as a family is increasingly deteriorating. During the course of the essay, I would analyse the potential rationales for the issue mentioned above before drawing on an objective conclusion.
Certainly, a plethora of reasons for such a phenomenon could easily be subjected to consideration. First and foremost, the rapid development of contemporary society causes people to be in a rush of making ends meet. As a result, the already-modest time for family’s activities is taken away alternated by the extensive workload at the offices. Secondly, the generation gap also contributes significantly to the mentioned tendency as young people would take family’s moments for granted. Meanwhile, the elders’ thoughts about the essentiality of family’s meals are considered as conservative. The clear evidence could be seen in most national holidays when the majority of youngsters choose to stay at work rather than going home with their relatives.
With the reasons mentioned above, the issue could lead to several detrimental effects. Within the household, this tendency results in the irreparable rift in the relationship between family members. To be specific, fewer meals between members means fewer stress-releasing mutual activities after an exhausting working day. Consequently, people’s emotions would spiral out of control causing them to conduct heartbreaking behaviour with their beloved surroundings. Moreover, in the social scale, the given problem would adversely affect the society to a certain degree in one way or another. This perspective results from the fact that families are cells of a society and a deteriorating family as analysed could worsen the community as a whole.
In conclusion, the given topic results from a host of causes followed by an extensive amount of problematic impacts that could be judged within households in particular and the public in general.
- Deteriorate (v): xuống cấp
- Rationale (n): nguyên nhân, lý do
- Alternate (v): biến đổi, thay thế
- Take something for granted (v): xem nhẹ việc gì đó, không quan tâm tới
- Irreparable rift (n): sự xa cách không thể đảo ngược
- Cell (n): tế bào
Bài viết hướng hoàn toàn về mặt trái, không có mặt lợi nào được đề cập. Đoạn body 1 đưa ra những lý do dẫn đến tình trạng các gia đình không còn ngồi bên nhau trong các bữa ăn (do bận rộn, khoảng cách thế hệ, xem nhẹ các giá trị gia đình) từ đó đưa ra những hệ luỵ ở body 2 (tạo nên sự xa cách giữa các thành viên trong gia đình, ảnh hưởng đến sự phát triển của con trẻ, gia đình không êm ấm cũng ảnh hưởng tiêu cực đến cộng đồng, xã hội,…).
Các câu, các đoạn luôn được kết nối bằng các cụm từ chỉ dẫn (first and foremost, secondly, to be specific, the clear evidence could be seen,…) và các liên từ (but, and, meanwhile, moreover, consequently,…).
Kết bài khẳng định lại những tác động tiêu cực của vấn nạn này trong gia đình nói riêng, và đối với sự phát triển của xã hội nói chung.
|The graphs below give information about computer ownership as a percentage of the population between 2002 and 2010, and by the level of education for the years 2002 and 2010.|
The given bar graphs exhibit data on the percentage of people who owned a computer from 2002 to 2010, categorized to the total population and educational level.
Overall, computer ownership had grown over time, with heightened levels of ownership being among those with more advanced degrees.
In 2002, over a half of individuals had computers, according to the first graph, and this figure had continued to rise over time. After four years, the percentage of individuals who possessed computers surpassed 60%, and in 2010, the percentage of people who already owned computers topped a little over 70%.
The proportion of computer ownership grew with education level, as seen in the second bar graph; that is, the higher the education level, the greater the percentage of computer ownership. In 2002, for example, 15 percent of persons without a high school diploma had computers, compared to 70 percent of those with a bachelor’s degree and over 80 percent of people with a postgraduate degree. After 8 years, the similar pattern could be seen in 2010, with a large rise in the percentage of persons who had computers compared to 2002.
- heightened levels (n): các mức độ tăng dần
Nhìn chung, có thể thấy rằng mức độ sở hữu máy tính của tất cả các nhóm người đều tăng theo thời gian, và người càng có trình độ văn hoá cao càng có tỷ lệ có máy tính cao hơn. Tiếp theo đó phân tích lần lượt từng biểu đồ. Biểu đồ đầu tiên không có sự lên xuống bất thường nào hết nên có thể lựa chọn ra điểm bắt đầu (2002), điểm giữa (2006) và điểm cuối (2010) để tượng trưng, không cần trình bày tất cả các số liệu. Ở biểu đồ tiếp theo, đưa ra nhận xét thể hiện mức độ sở hữu máy tính tương ứng với trình độ văn hoá. Sau đó lựa chọn các số liệu phù hợp để thể hiện điều đó: học sinh cấp 3 (15%), cử nhân (70%) và sau đại học (80%) vào năm 2002 và trình bày năm 2010 cũng có xu hướng tương tự, nhưng số liệu cao hơn.
|Many animal species are becoming extinct. Some believe countries and individuals must solve this problem, others think that human beings are more important than animals.|
Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
The extinction of animals is a delicate issue that is often studied and debated. Meanwhile, some suggest that individuals and governments should take steps to protect animals, while others argue that funding should be focused on developing human values. In this paper, I will examine both sides of the debate and explain why I favor the former viewpoint.
The extinction of species is a natural process, but the rate at which it is occurring currently is not. Though the precise number is impossible to quantify, there has been a difference in the number of creatures thought to be at risk of extinction. To begin with, the mass extinction of living things has the potential to upset the ecosystem’s equilibrium; consequently, it is necessary to protect all living beings on our planet. Second, all creatures play a crucial role in the ecosystem’s food chain. For example, if a species of the bird goes extinct, it will have an impact on all other organisms that used to interact with the bird. Overhunting, poaching, deforestation, overcrowding, and intentional pollution are other major contributors to biodiversity loss. As a result, human activities are to blame for the extinction of animals; thus, people must assume full responsibility for their activities and work to conserve biodiversity.
Some individuals, on the other hand, may argue that human lives are more valuable, which cannot be refuted. Hundreds of thousands of people, for example, are malnourished and impoverished all over the world. Nevertheless, a significant portion of the budget is now allocated to initiatives that are not human-oriented, when a more prudent use of these funds would be to improve the quality of life on the planet.
To summarize, I am certain that mankind must take all necessary steps to prevent species from becoming extinct and ensure their ability to survive for future generations.
- Delicate (adj): nhạy cảm
- Quantify (v): định lượng
- Equilibrium (n): sự cân bằng tuyệt đối
- Human-oriented (adj): hướng tới con người làm đối tượng chính
Bài viết phân tích cả hai khía cạnh của vấn đề, và thể hiện quan điểm rằng bảo vệ động vật vẫn quan trọng hơn, và điều này được thể hiện ngay trong mở bài để tạo ra định hướng giúp người đọc dễ hình dung.
Đoạn body 1 phân tích khía cạnh về tầm quan trọng của động vật và những mối đe doạ đến sự sinh tồn của chúng. Tuy tuyệt chủng là một là quá trình tự nhiên, nhưng với tốc độ quá nhanh như vậy thì con người phải chịu trách nhiệm.
Bên cạnh đó, đoạn body 2 nêu những vấn đề liên quan đến con người (người nghèo, bị suy dinh dưỡng,…) nhưng đồng thời cũng nêu thực trạng rằng hiện nay nguồn tiền đang được nghiêng về việc bảo vệ sự sống cho động vật nhiều hơn là hướng tới con người. Từ đó, tác giả chốt lại quan điểm cá nhân tại kết bài.
Hy vọng bài viết tổng hợp đề thi IELTS Writing 2021 đã giúp bạn có thêm nhiều đề để luyện IELTS Writing thật tốt!