Chắc hẳn là một người học tiếng Anh, bạn đã từng thấy hoặc biết tới câu điều kiện, một dạng ngữ pháp phổ biến, đặc biệt thường dùng trong kỳ thi IELTS. Bạn đã thông thạo cách sử dụng và cấu trúc của câu điều kiện chưa? Nếu chưa hãy cùng IELTS Vietop thực hành ngay bài tập trắc nghiệm câu điều kiện dưới đây nhé.
Tóm tắt lý thuyết câu điều kiện
Câu điều kiện (Conditional sentences) là câu bao gồm 2 mệnh đề: mệnh đề điều kiện và mệnh đề kết quả. Nó được dùng để nói về những tình huống giả định, điều kiện xảy ra thì dẫn tới kết quả nào đó.
Có 4 loại câu điều kiện cơ bản. Ngoài ra còn có thêm các dạng câu điều kiện hỗn hợp là sự phối hợp của các dạng câu điều kiện cơ bản.
Câu điều kiện loại 0, 1, 2, 3 và 4
|Loại câu điều kiện||Cách dùng||Cấu trúc||Ví dụ|
|Loại 0||Nói về điều kiện của những sự thật hiển nhiên.||If + clause (hiện tại đơn), clause (hiện tại đơn).||If wood is burned, it finally turns into ash. (Nếu gỗ bị đốt thì cuối cùng nó sẽ thành tro).|
|Loại 1||Giả thiết, lời đe dọa, lời hứa xảy ra trong tương lai.||If + clause (hiện tại đơn), clause (tương lai đơn).||If you don’t come back home in time, you will have to sleep outside. (Nếu bạn không trở về nhà đúng giờ thì bạn sẽ phải ngủ ở ngoài).|
|Loại 2||Giả thiết không có thật ở hiện tại, thông thường là lời khuyên.||If + clause (quá khứ đơn), S + would/could/might + V.||If I were you, I would continue my study. (Nếu tôi là bạn, tôi sẽ tiếp tục việc học).|
|Loại 3||Giả thiết không có thật ở trong quá khứ.||If + clause (quá khứ hoàn thành), S + would/could/might + have + PII.||If I hadn’t divorced him, I would have been so tired. (Nếu tôi không ly hôn với anh ta thì tôi đã rất mệt mỏi).|
|Loại 4||Kết hợp giữa loại 2 và loại 3, mô tả thời gian diễn ra điều kiện trong quá khứ và kết quả trong hiện tại hoặc ngược lại.||If + clause (quá khứ hoàn thành), S + would/could/might + V.If + clause (quá khứ đơn), S + would/could/might + have + PII.||If they had arrived earlier, they would have dinner with us. (Nếu họ trở về sớm hơn thì họ đang dùng bữa tối với chúng tôi rồi).If they had a test today, they wouldn’t have watched a movie yesterday. (Nếu họ có bài thi hôm nay, họ sẽ không thể xem phim hôm qua).|
Đảo ngữ với câu điều kiện
Ngoài ở 4 dạng câu điều kiện kể trên thì chúng cũng ở dạng đảo ngữ.
- Đảo ngữ câu điều kiện loại 1: Should + S + V-nguyên thể, S + Will +V-nguyên thể
E.g: Should I meet her next Thursday, I will give her this gift. = If I meet her next Thursday, I will give her this gift. (Nếu tôi gặp cô ấy vào thứ Năm tới, tôi sẽ tặng cô ấy món quà này).
- Đảo ngữ câu điều kiện loại 2: Were + S + to + V-nguyên thể, S + Would + V-nguyên thể
E.g: Were I you, I would buy this garden = If I were you, I would buy this garden. (Nếu tôi là cậu thì tôi đã mua khu vườn này).
- Đảo ngữ câu điều kiện loại 3: Had + S + V3/Ved, S + Would have + V3/Ved
E.g: Had she driven carefully, the accident wouldn’t have happened. = If she had driven carefully, the accident wouldn’t have happened. (Nếu cô ấy lái xe cẩn thận, tai nạn sẽ không xảy ra).
Trường hợp khác của câu điều kiện
- Unless = If…not (Trừ phi, nếu…không)
E.g: If you don’t come in time, I will miss the concert ticket. (Nếu bạn không đến đúng giờ thì mình đã bỏ lỡ vé ca nhạc rồi)
→ Unless you come in time, I will miss the concert ticket. (Trừ phi bạn đến đúng giờ, nếu không mình sẽ bỏ lỡ vé ca nhạc).
- Một số cụm Từ đồng nghĩa:
Những cụm từ có thể thay cho if trong câu điều kiện như:
- Suppose/ Supposing: giả sử như
- In case: trong trường hợp
- Even if: ngay cả khi, cho dù
So long as, as long as, provided (that), on condition (that): miễn là, với điều kiện là
E.g: Provided that she turns up the party, I will give you that gift. (Với điều kiện cô ấy đến dự tiệc, tôi sẽ tặng bạn món quà đó)
→ If she turns up the party, I will give you that gift. (Nếu cô ấy đến dự tiệc, tôi sẽ tặng bạn món quà đó)
- Without: không có
E.g: Without love, life would be so boring. (Nếu không có tình yêu, cuộc sống sẽ rất nhàm chán).
→ If there were no love, life would be so boring. (Nếu không có tình yêu, cuộc sống sẽ rất nhàm chán).
Bài tập trắc nghiệm câu điều kiện
Bài 1: Chọn đáp án chứa lỗi sai.
1. If a dog is fierce, it would bite people.
2. Elaine will buy the drinks if somebody help her carry the bottles.
A. will buy
3. If he has more time, he would learn karate.
4. If water is frozed, it expands.
5. She would have understood if you had been spoken English.
A. Would have
D. had been spoken
Bài 2: Chọn câu viết đúng.
1. If/you/come/garden/,/my dog/bite you/./
A. If you come into my garden, my dog will bite you.
B. If you come my garden, dog will bite you.
C. If you came into my garden, my dog would bite you.
D. If you come into my garden, my dog bite you.
A. If you hot the ice, it melts.
B. If you heat the ice, it melted.
C. If you heat the ice, it melts.
D. If you heat the ice, it will melt.
A. If I’m a bird, I will be very happy.
B. If I was a bird, I would be very happy.
C. If I were a bird, I were very happy
D. If I were a bird, I would be very happy.
A. If you had looked at the map, you wouldn’t be lost.
B. If you looked at the map, you wouldn’t be lost.
C. If you had looked at the map, you wouldn’t lost.
D. If you look at the map, you wouldn’t be lost.
5. If/it/rain/three hour ago/,/the streets/be/wet/now/./
A. If it had rained three hour ago, the streets would be wet now.
B. If it had rained three hour ago, the streets are wet now.
C. If it had rained three hour ago, the streets would been wet now.
D. If it had been rained three hour ago, the streets would be wet now.
Bài 3: Tìm từ còn thiếu trong câu.
1. If Leo ………….. up late last night, he wouldn’t sleep now.
A. hadn’t stayed
B. don’t stay
D. hasn’t stayed
2. If I meet him tomorrow, I ………… him this letter.
C. will give
D. would give
3. If I had free time, I __________some shopping with you.
B. will do
C. would do
D. have done
4. If you_________English well, you will communicate with foreigners.
B. had spoken
5. If he had known her telephone number, he________her.
A. had rung
B. would have rung
D. will ring
6. I would have visited you if I_________busy with my homework.
B. hadn’t been
C. wouldn’t be
7. Will you be angry if I______……………… your pocket dictionary?
B. have been stolen
C. were to steal
8. If he__________the truth, the police wouldn’t arrest him.
D. would tell
9. If I were Quynh, I_____……………… this job.
B. will accept
C. would accepted
D. would accept
10. ________, the accident would not have happened yesterday.
A. If Nam drives more carefully
B. If had Nam driven more carefully
C. Had Nam driven more carefully
D. Unless Nam had driven more carefully
Bài 4: Chọn đáp án đúng nhất.
1. I’d have sent you a postcard while I was on my vacation if I ……. your address.
- had remembered
- would remember
2. We would gladly buy the house if it ……. so small.
- is not
- would not be
- were not
- had not been
3. They’re expecting us. They would be very disappointed if we …….
- will not
- would not come
- did not come
- do not come
4. If I were you, I ……. him.
- had married him
- will not marry
- do not marry
- would not marry
5. If I ……. a $100 bill on the street, I would keep it.
- would find
- had found
6. It’s good that Ann reminded me about Tom’s birthday. I ……. if she hadn’t reminded me.
- would have forgotten
- would forget
- will forget
- had forgotten
7. Ann gave me this ring. She ……. terribly upset if I lost it.
- would have been
- would be
- will be
8. What would happen if you ……. go to work tomorrow?
- do not
- did not
- will not
- would not
9. If someone ……. in here with a gun, I’d be very frightened.
- would walk
- will walk
10. I’d help you if I ……., but I’m afraid I can’t.
- had been able to
- could have been able to
Bài 5: Chọn đáp án đúng nhất.
1. I wouldn’t mind living in London if the weather …….
- would be better
- were better
- had been better
- is better
2. Jim got to the bus stop in time. If he ……. the bus, he would have been late for his interview.
- would have missed
- had missed
3. Many people would be out of work if that company ……. down.
- will close
4. I’m sure she ……. if you explained the situation to her.
- would have understood
- would understand
- will understand
5. If the company offered me the job, I think I ……. it.
- would not take
- do not take
- will not
6. I’m sure Lee would lend you some money. I’d be surprised he ……..
- will refuse
- would refuse
7. We might not stay at this hotel if Debbie ……. it to us.
- would not recommend
- did not recommend
- would have recommended
- hadn’t recommended
8. If she sold her car, she ……. much money for it.
- did not get
- does not get
- will not get
- would not get
9. I ……. you a cigarette if I had one, but I’m afraid I don’t.
- will give
- would give
10. Would George be angry if I …….his bicycle without asking?
- will take
- would take
Bài 6: Chọn đáp án đúng nhất.
1. ……………… they study regularly, can they succeed in lessons that require memorization.
A. Only when
C. If only
E. On condition that
2. If our possessions ……………… away from us, our feelings of resentment at people’s injustice ……………… very strong.
A. had been taken / could be
B. had been taken / were
C. were taken / may be
D. have been taken / would be
E. are taken / can be
3. If the 2004 presidential election were held today, almost twice as many people say they ……………… for President George W. Bush as for former Vice President Al Gore.
A. would have voted
B. had voted
C. will vote
D. would vote
4. If you ……………… someone dear to you with such an illness, ……………… him to ask his doctor about therapy.
A. have / encourage
B. have had / encouraging
C. had / encourage
D. will have / you encouraged
E. had had / encouraged
5. If they ……………… the instructions in advance they ……………… that the exam would be in the other building.
A. read / knew
B. had read / would have known
C. would read / knew
D. read / will know
E. have read / know
6. If I ……………… what the river was like, I ……………… a different line of approach to the other side.
A. have known / will choose
B. knew / chose
C. had known / would have chosen
D. knew / had chosen
E. had known / must have chosen
7. If they ……………… any idea about how they took the money, they ……………… it to the police.
A. had / had told
B. had had / should have told
C. had / had told
D. have had / would tell
E. would have / would tell
8. If your student ……………… a mistake, you ……………… him in the classroom. But you can warn him later.
A. made / can’t embarrass
B. makes / haven’t embarrassed
C. made / didn’t embarrass
D. makes / wouldn’t embarrass
E. has made / shouldn’t embarrass
9. You ……………… problems of discipline with your children if you ……………… them watch TV more than an hour.
A. have had / will let
B. have / will let
C. may have / let
D. had / would let
E. would have / have let
10. ……………… for the changes made in regulations to acceptance to the school, very few students ……………… before the year started.
A. Were it not / will have enrolled
B. Should it not / would enroll
C. Were it not / would enroll
D. But / have enrolled
E. Had it not been / would have enrolled
1. B. would → will
2. C. help → helps
3. A. has → had
4. C. frozed → frozen
5. D. had been spoken- had spoken
1. A. If you come into my garden, my dog will bite you.
2. C. If you heat the ice, it melts.
3. D. If I were a bird, I would be very happy.
4. A. If you had looked at the map, you wouldn’t be lost.
5. A. If it had rained three hour ago, the streets would be wet now.
1. A. hadn’t stayed
2. C. will give
3. C. would do
4. C. speak
5. B. would have rung
6. B. hadn’t been
7. D. steal
8. B. told
9. D. would accept
10. C. Had Nam driven more carefully
Hẳn là qua những bài tập trên đây, bạn đã nắm được những lý thuyết cơ bản về câu điều kiện. Hãy thực hành thêm nhiều bài tập trắc nghiệm câu điều kiện nhé. Vietop chúc bạn học giỏi và đạt được mục tiêu của mình.