Câu gián tiếp và câu trực tiếp trong Tiếng Anh

Trần Lộc Trần Lộc
26.05.2020

Khi bạn sử dụng tiếng Anh hàng ngày, nói về những gì mọi người đang nói hoặc có thể đã nói với bạn sẽ xuất hiện rất nhiều. Làm cách nào để truyền tải được những thông tin đó. Hãy cùng tìm hiểu về cách sử dụng cấu trúc câu gián tiếp và câu trực tiếp trong bài viết dưới đây nhé.

1. Directed speech – Câu trực tiếp là gì?

Câu trực tiếp (Directed Speech) được sử dụng trong hầu hết mọi thì trong tiếng Anh. Có thể sử dụng nó để mô tả một việc gì đó xảy ra ngay thời điểm hiện tại. Lời được tường thuật sẽ chính xác như lời nói của một người và thường sẽ được đặt trong dấu ngoặc kép “ ”.

Ví dụ:

While Marry is on the phone, she’s saying to Jack, “I’m never going to talk to you again.”

Dịch: Khi Marry trên điện thoại, cô ấy nói với Jack: “Tôi sẽ không bao giờ nói chuyện với anh nữa”

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2. Reported speech – Câu gián tiếp là gì?

Lời nói gián tiếp được sử dụng để nhắc lại ý chính những gì ai đó có thể đã nói. Thay vì sử dụng dấu ngoặc kép khi nói về lời được tương thuật trong câu trực tiếp thì lời được tường thuật trong câu gián tiếp thường đứng sau chữ “that”.

Ví dụ:

He said that he was not tired.

Dịch: Anh ấy nói rằng anh ấy không mệt.

3. Quy tắc chuyển câu trực tiếp sang gián tiếp

Bước 1: Đổi đại từ

Đại từ chủ ngữ

Câu trực tiếp

Câu gián tiếp

 

I

He/She

 

You

I/We/They

 

We

We/They

Đại từ chỉ định

Câu trực tiếp

Câu gián tiếp

 

me

him/her

 

you

me/us/them

 

us

us/them

Tính từ sở hữu

Câu trực tiếp

Câu gián tiếp

 

my

his/her

 

your

my/our/their

 

own

our/their

Đại từ sở hữu

Câu trực tiếp

Câu gián tiếp

 

mine

his/hers

 

yours

mine/ ours/ theirs

 

ours

ours/ theirs

Tính từ chỉ định

Câu trực tiếp

Câu gián tiếp

 

This

the/that

 

These

the/those

Bước 2: Quy tắc lùi thì trong câu gián tiếp

Câu trực tiếp

Câu gián tiếp

Hiện tại đơn

-> Quá khứ đơn

Hiện tại tiếp diễn

-> Quá khứ tiếp diễn

Hiện tại hoàn thành

-> Quá khứ hoàn thành

Hiện tại hoàn thành tiếp diễn

-> Quá khứ hoàn thành tiếp diễn

Quá khứ đơn

-> Quá khứ hoàn thành

Quá khứ tiếp diễn

-> Quá khứ hoàn thành tiếp diễn

Câu trực tiếp

Câu gián tiếp

Can

Could

Could

Could

Will

Would

Would

Would

Might

Might

Must

Must

May

Might

Shall

Would

Should

Should

Một số trường hợp sau đây không được lùi thì:

  • Nói về chân lý, sự thật;
  • Thì quá khứ hoàn thành;
  • Trong câu có năm xác định;
  • Các câu có cấu trúc sau: if only, as if, as though, wish, would rather, it’s high time, IF loại 2, 3.

Bước 3: Biến đổi trạng từ chỉ thời gian và nơi chốn

Trạng từ chỉ thời gian

Câu trực tiếp

Câu gián tiếp

 

Now

Then

 

Today

That day

 

Yesterday

The day before The previous day

 

Tomorrow

The next day

 

Next day/week/month

The following day/week/month

 

Last day/week/month

The day/week/month before

 

ago

before

Trạng từ chỉ nơi chốn

Câu trực tiếp

Câu gián tiếp

 

Here

There

 

These

Those

 

This

That

 

That

That

THÌ

CÂU TRỰC TIẾP

CÂU GIÁN TIẾP

present simpleI like ice creamShe said (that) she liked ice cream.
present continuousI am living in LondonShe said (that) she was living in London.
past simpleI bought a carShe said (that) she had bought a car OR She said (that) she bought a car.
past continuousI was walking along the streetShe said (that) she had been walking along the street.
present perfectI haven’t seen JulieShe said (that) she hadn’t seen Julie.
past perfect*I had taken English lessons beforeShe said (that) she had taken English lessons before.
willI’ll see you laterShe said (that) she would see me later.
would*I would help, but..”She said (that) she would help but…
canI can speak perfect EnglishShe said (that) she could speak perfect English.
could*I could swim when I was fourShe said (that) she could swim when she was four.
shallI shall come laterShe said (that) she would come later.
should*I should call my motherShe said (that) she should call her mother
might*I might be lateShe said (that) she might be late
mustI must study at the weekendShe said (that) she must study at the weekend OR She said she had to study at the weekend

4. Cách chuyển từ câu trực tiếp sang câu gián tiếp

4.1. Dạng câu kể/ Tường thuật

S + say(s)/said + (that) + S + V

  • says/say to + O -> tells/tell + O
  • said to + O ->told+O

Ví dụ: She said to me”I haven’t finished my work” -> She told me she hadn’t finished her work.

Xem bài viết cùng chủ đề: Nắm vững Reported Speech – Câu tường thuật trong tiếng Anh

4.2. Dạng câu hỏi

Đối với câu hỏi Yes – No

S + asked/ wanted to know/ wondered+if/ wether + S + V

Ví dụ: ”Are you tired?” she asked -> She asked if/ whether I was tired.

Đối với câu hỏi Wh-questions

S + asked (+O)/ wanted to know/ wondered + Wh-words + S + V

  • says/say to + O -> asks/ask + O
  • said to + O -> asked + O

Ví dụ: ”What are you talking about?” She said. -> She asked me what I were talking about.

4.3. Dạng mệnh lệnh

Dạng khẳng định

S + told + O + to-infinitive

Ví dụ: Eric said: “Please wait for me here, Linda” -> Eric told Linda to wait for him there.

Dạng phủ định

S + told + O + not to-infinitive

Ví dụ: “Don’t go out”, she said to us -> She told us not to go out.

Xem thêm: Cách sử dụng câu điều kiện trong Tiếng Anh

4.4. Các dạng câu tường thuật đặc biệt

  • SHALL/ WOULD dùng để diễn tả đề nghị, lời mời

Ví dụ: Acacia asked: “Shall I bring you some coffee?” -> Acacia offered to bring me some coffee.

  • WILL/ WOULD/ CAN/ COULD dùng để diễn tả sự yêu cầu

Ví dụ: Jim asked: “Will you help me, please” -> Jim asked me to help him.

5. Một số động từ tường thuật khác

Verb + to

Ví dụ:

  • Derrick admitted that he had forgotten to turn of the lights.
  • Helen offered to take me to Lady Gaga’s concert.
  • James promised to be on time

Verb – that

Ví dụ:

  • Jọhn agrees that we have to bring an umbrella..
  • Mary forget that she’s just a child.

Verb – to + Object + that

Ví dụ:

  • We complained to the committee that they had not kept us informed.
  • I’d like to point out to everyone that it will be expensive to hire a concert hall.

Verb – O + that

Ví dụ:

  • He convinced everyone that the new road would be good for the town.
  • The school informed George that he had passed the entry test.

Nếu bạn có nhu cầu ôn tập tiếng Anh và cần lộ trình học tiếng Anh phù hợp có thể đăng ký ngay bên dưới:

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6. Bài tập về câu gián tiếp, câu trực tiếp trong tiếng Anh

Hoàn thành các câu sau:

  1. “Where is my umbrella?” she asked.
    She asked……………………………………… ………………….
  2. “How are you?” Martin asked us.
    Martin asked us………………………………………… ……………….
  3. He asked, “Do I have to do it?”
    He asked……………………………………… ………………….
  4. “Where have you been?” the mother asked her daughter.
    The mother asked her daughter…………………………………… …………………….
  5. “Which dress do you like best?” she asked her boyfriend.
    She asked her boyfriend………………………………….. ……………………..
  6. “What are they doing?” she asked.
    She wanted to know………………………………………. …………………
  7. “Are you going to the cinema?” he asked me.
    He wanted to know………………………………………. …………………
  8. The teacher asked, “Who speaks English?”
    The teacher wanted to know………………………………………. …………………
  9. “How do you know that?” she asked me.
    She asked me………………………………………… ……………….
  10. “Has Caron talked to Kevin?” my friend asked me.
    My friend asked me………………………………………… ……………….
  11. “What’s the time?” he asked.
    → He wanted to know ………………………………………….. .
  12. “When will we meet again?” she asked me.
    → She asked me ………………………………………….. .
  13. “Are you crazy?” she asked him.
    → She asked him ………………………………………….. .
  14. “Where did they live?” he asked.
    → He wanted to know ………………………………………….. .
  15. “Will you be at the party?” he asked her.
    → He asked her ………………………………………….. .
  16. “Can you meet me at the station?” she asked me.
    → She asked me ………………………………………….. .
  17. “Who knows the answer?” the teacher asked.
    → The teacher wanted to know ………………………………………….. .
  18. “Why don’t you help me?” she asked him.
    → She wanted to know ………………………………………….. .
  19. “Did you see that car?” he asked me.
    → He asked me ………………………………………….. .
  20. “Have you tidied up your room?” the mother asked the twins.
    → The mother asked the twins …………………………………………..
  21. “Stop talking, Joe,” the teacher said.
    → The teacher told Joe ………………………………………….. .
  22. “Be patient,” she said to him.
    → She told him ………………………………………….. .
  23. “Go to your room,” her father said to her.
    → Her father told her ………………………………………….. .
  24. “Hurry up,” she said to us.
    → She told us ………………………………………….. .
  25. “Give me the key,” he told her.
    → He asked her ………………………………………….. .
  26. “Play it again, Sam,” she said.
    → She asked Sam ………………………………………….. .
  27. “Sit down, Caron” he said.
    → He asked Caron ………………………………………….. .
  28. “Fill in the form, Sir,” the receptionist said.
    → The receptionist asked the guest ………………………………………….. .
  29. “Take off your shoes,” she told us.
    → She told us ………………………………………….. .
  30. “Mind your own business,” she told him.

→ She told him ………………………………………….. .

  1. “Don’t touch it,” she said to him.
    → She told him ………………………………………….. .
  2. “Don’t do that again,” he said to me.
    → He told me ………………………………………….. .
  3. “Don’t talk to me like that,” he said.
    → He told her ………………………………………….. .
  4. “Don’t repair the computer yourself,” she warned him.
    → She warned him ………………………………………….. .
  5. “Don’t let him in,” she said.
    → She told me ………………………………………….. .
  6. “Don’t go out without me,” he begged her.
    → He begged her ………………………………………….. .
  7. “Don’t forget your bag,” she told me.
    → She told me ………………………………………….. .
  8. “Don’t eat in the lab,” the chemistry teacher said.
    → The chemistry teacher told his students ………………………………………….. .
  9. “Don’t give yourself up,” he advised her.
    → He advised her ………………………………………….. .
  10. “Don’t hurt yourselves, boys,” she said.
    → She told the boys ………………………………………….. .

Đáp án

  1. She asked me where her umbrella was.
  2. Martin asked us how we were.
  3. He asked if he had to do it.
  4. The mother asked her daughter where she had been.
  5. She asked her boyfriend which dress he liked best.
  6. She wanted to know what they were doing.
  7. He wanted to know if I was going to the cinema.
  8. The teacher wanted to know who spoke English.
  9. She asked me how I knew that.
  10. My friend asked me if Caron had talked to Kevin.
  11. He wanted to know what time it was.
  12. She asked me when we would meet again.
  13. She asked him if he was crazy.
  14. He wanted to know where they had lived.
  15. He asked her if she would be at the party.
  16. She asked me if I could meet her at the station.
  17. The teacher wanted to know who knew the answer.
  18. She wanted to know why he didn’t help her.
  19. He asked me if I had seen that car.
  20. The mother asked the twins if they had tidied up their room.
  21. The teacher told Joe to stop talking.
  22. She told him to be patient.
  23. Her father told her to go to her room.
  24. She told us to hurry up.
  25. He asked her to give him the key.
  26. She asked Sam to play it again.
  27. He asked Caron to sit down.
  28. The receptionist asked the guest to fill in the form.
  29. She told us to take off our shoes.
  30. She told him to mind his own business.
  31. She told him not to touch it.
  32. He told me not to do that again.
  33. He told her not to talk to him like that.
  34. She warned him not to repair the computer himself.
  35. She told me not to let him in.
  36. He begged her not to go out without him.
  37. She told me not to forget my bag.
  38. The chemistry teacher told his students not to eat in the class.
  39. He advised her not to give herself up.
  40. She told the boys not to hurt themselves.

Hy vọng rằng với những kiến thức bổ ích trên, các bạn hoàn toàn có thể làm chủ kiến thức về câu trực tiếp và câu gián tiếp tiếng Anh. Đây là một trong số những kiến thức mà một số bạn đã chủ quan bỏ qua và để mất điểm một cách hết sức đáng tiếc. Chúc bạn học tập tốt!

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