Trong phần thi IELTS Writing và Speaking, việc sử dụng từ nối đóng vai trò quan trọng trong việc tao liên kết giữa các câu và các ý. Giúp cho bài nói hay bài viết tăng tính mạch lạc, đồng thời thể hiện được sự hiểu biết của thí sinh trong việc sử dụng đa dạng các dạng ngữ pháp trong tiếng Anh. Việc sử dụng đúng cách các loại từ nối khác nhau đòi hỏi sự hiểu biết sâu sắc về ý nghĩa, cách dùng cũng như vị trí của chúng.
A. Những từ nối trong tiếng Anh
1. Những từ nối diễn đạt nguyên nhân và kết quả
Từ nối chỉ nguyên nhân
Because/As/Since + clause 1 (reason), clause 2 (result)
Clause 1 (result) + because/as/since + clause 2 (reason)
Ví dụ: Gaming can be highly addictive because users are constantly given scores, new targets and rewards to keep them playing.
Because of/ Thank to/ Due to/ Owning to + Noun phrase (reason), Clause (result)
Clause (result), thank to / owning to/ due to/ because of + Noun phrase (reason)
Ví dụ: The way many people contact with each other has changed because of technology developments
Từ nối chỉ kết quả
Sentence 1 (reason). Therefore/ As a consequence/ As a result/ Consequently, Sentence 2 (result)
Ví dụ: Men are innately stronger, more competitive and more aggressive, which makes their shows seemingly more sensational and dramatic. Therefore, people generally prefer watching men doing sports to women.
2. Những từ nối thể hiện sự đối nghịch
Although/Though/ Even though + Clause 1, Clause 2 (contrast)
Clause 1, Although/Though/ Even though + Clause 2 (contrast)
Ví dụ: Although urban life is stressful, it has many employment opportunities.
In spite of/ Despite + Noun phrase, Clause (contrast)
Ví dụ: In spite of bad weather, we had a wonderful holiday.
Sentence 1. In contrast / However / Nevertheless/ / By contrast /On the other hand, Sentence 2 (contrast)
Ví dụ: Over a 10-year period, there was a little change in the figures for top three mobile phone features. However, the proportion of people using their phones to play music increase significantly
3. Những từ nối thể hiện điều kiện
If/ Unless/Provided (that)/Providing (that)+ clause 1 (condition), clause 2 (result)
Ví dụ: If the situation persists, students will forget what they have learnt
4. Những từ nối thể hiện mục đích
Clause (action) + in order to/ so as to/ to + V(inf)
Clause (action) + so that/ in order that + Clause (purpose)
Ví dụ: People who take part in physically demanding sports should attend appropriate so that the dangers can be minimized.
5. Những từ nối bổ sung thông tin
Sentence 1. In addition/ Besides/ Additionally / Moreover/ Also / Furthermore, Sentence 2 (extra information)
Ví dụ: Achievements of female sports figures shown on TV can encourage those with potential to embark on their sporting career. Moreover, more showing time may attract additional investments from sponsors.
6. Những từ nối thể hiện việc liệt kê
Firstly, idea 1/ Secondly, idea 2 … finally/lastly, last idea.
Ví dụ: I’m a huge fan of swimming for several reasons. Firstly, it helps me to keep fit and boost my immune system. Secondly, going for a dip is a great way to shelter from sweltering heat of summer. Lastly, I suppose it’s a great way to unwind after a hard day at work
7. Những từ nối thể hiện ví dụ
Sentence 1. For example/ For instance, sentence 2 (example of sentence 1)
Sentence 1 such as/ including/ like / namely + Noun Phrase 1, Noun Phrase 2…
Ví dụ: Americans and British use different words to describe the same object. For example, a ‘cookie’ in AE is called ‘biscuit’ in BE)
8. Những từ nối thể hiện thời gian
Before/ After + Clause 1, Clause 2
Ví dụ: The number of car use in Britain increased dramatically over the next 5 years before it plunged to a low in 2002
9. Những từ nối thể hiện sự tương đồng
Sentence 1. Likewise/ Similarly, sentence 2.
Noun 1 + compared to/ compared with + noun 2
As/ Like + noun, clause
Ví dụ: Compared to those who live in big cities, children in remote areas often travel longer distance to schools.
10. Những từ nối thể hiện ý kiến của bản thân
In my opinion/ In my view/From my point of view, clause (personal opinion)
I think that/I believe that/It seems to me that + clause (personal opinion)
Ví dụ: I believe that such negligence is intolerable in today’s egalitarian society
11. Những từ nối đưa ra kết luận
In conclusion/To sum up/All in all /To summarise, clause (conclusion)
Ví dụ: In conclusion, the reasons behind male’s dominance in sports shows are the sexist views ingrained in some people’s mentality and the fact that men’s shows might be more appealing
B. Bài tập áp dụng
Bài tập 1: Chọn đáp án đúng
1. The class discussion was short;_____________, we gained some knowledge from it.
2. The undergone is cheap;_____________, it’s faster than the train.
3. The countryside air is fresh,________________, it’s not polluted.
4. Minh had a terrible headache. __________________, he still wanted to go to school.
5. My car broke down on the way.____________, when I got the airport, the plane had taken off.
6. His mother was sick._________________, Jane had to stay at home to look after her.
7. They asked me to wait for them; ____________, he didn’t turn back.
8. He knew the danger of smoking;______________, he couldn’t give it up.
Bài tập 2: Điền các từ nối trong hộp từ sau vào các câu dưới đây:
However | Then | Similarity | Therefore | Nevertheless | After sometime | Eventually | Otherwise | Afterwards
1. There is no more food left. _____________ there is plenty of drinks.
2. The Interact Club has done well to help the poor. ___________ the Welfare Club has done well too.
3. The documents will be scrutinized by the police. ___________ they will be sent back to be relevant authority.
4. The retailer has been making losses. _____________ he intends to wind up his business.
5. Wash the potatoes first. _______________ you can boil them
6. We have been trying to contact Michael for the past few days. _____________ we managed to trace him to a hotel in town.
7. Life in the country may not be as exciting as life in the city. _______ you are close to nature which provides peace and quietness.
8. The dog will bark without fail every time the ice-cream man passes by. _____________ it will start howling.
9. Let us not be complacent with ourselves. _________ we may lose out in the final round.
10. Lopez has experienced poverty and hardship before. _____________ he has a sympathetic heart towards the poor and needy.
Bài tập 1
Bài tập 2
8. After sometime
Hy vọng với những chia sẻ trên đã giúp ích được cho bạn nhé!