The graph gives information about the number of people in Australia who used Chinese, Arabic, Italian or Greek as their first language.
The line graph illustrates information about four groups of speakers who use languages other than English as their mother tongue from 1986 to 2011.
Overall, the number of native speakers of Chinese and Arabic experienced steady rises, with the figure for the former seeing the fastest growth. In addition, the number of Italian and Greek speakers saw slight but steady declines.
Both Chinese and Arabic speakers increased in numbers. Specifically, the former rose from just over 100,000 in 1986 to about 350,000 in 2011, whilst the latter also saw an increase, albeit less pronounced, from 50,000 in 1986 to 150,000 in 2011.
Speakers of the two European languages, in the meantime, underwent opposite patterns. . The figure for people who spoke Greek as their mother tongue fell gradually from around 225,000 in 1986 to approximately 175,000 in 2011 . Similarly, Italian speakers also underwent a decrease of about 40,000 from 150,000, making Italian the least spoken language of the four after 2001.
- experience steady rises : có sự tăng trưởng ổn định. Steady: ổn định
- see an increase: có xu hướng tăng
- undergo a decrease: trải qua một đợt suy giảm
- albeit (adv): mặc dù
- pronounced (adj): rõ ràng, đáng chú ý
Large companies use sport events to promote their products. Some people think this has a negative impact on sports. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Advertisements from large corporations have been prevalent in sporting events and tournaments. Some people fear that this may be a negative development, and I agree as intrusive advertisements in sports events would devalue the history of sport teams and in some cases promote unhealthy lifestyles.
Excessive advertisements from big businesses have led to identity loss of many sport teams through renaming and redesigning. Across the sports industry, many teams and franchises have taken business deals to rename their stadiums after their sponsors and redesign their traditional jersey to display conspicuous advertisements. When a club’s name becomes too closely linked to a brand, it might be seen as an extension and a marketing tool for that company and that it no longer competes for the pride of their name and history. A prime example of this is the Arsenal football team. After using “Emirates” as its stadium’s namesake and including a large print of the same word on its uniforms, the club’s image is now inextricably linked with Emirates .
Although it could be agreed that sporting events are to promote healthy lifestyles, many product promotions appear to contradict this notion. It is easy to spot advertisements of sugary beverages, which are warned by health experts for their negative impacts on people’s bodies, on the sidelines or on press conference room’s tables. Associating athletes’ and sport teams’ images with these products would send the wrong message to the general public. By the same token, advertisements from betting websites shown at sports events may convey to the public a misleading impression that betting is endorsed by sports superstars, and one possible consequence of this is the increase in the number of gamblers.
In conclusion, my firm conviction is that excessive advertising at sporting events could potentially undermine the credibility of a sports team, turn them into marketing tools and also promote certain consumption behaviors that go against the values of sports.
- intrusive (adj): mang tính xâm nhập/xâm lấn
- excessive (adj): quá đà
- conspicuous (adj): dễ thấy
- a prime example (expression): một ví dụ tiêu biểu
- sugary beverage (n.ph): nước ngọt
- general public (n.ph): đại chúng
- by the same token (expression): tương như vậy (với cùng lý do)
- misleading (adj): gây hiểu lầm
- undermine (v): hạ thấp (uy tín)
- credibility (n): uy tín
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