Khi giao tiếp Tiếng Anh với nhau mọi người rất thường dùng Phrasal Verbs, nên hôm nay IELTS Vietop xin chia sẻ với bạn những điều cần biết về Phrasal Verb và danh sách các phrasal verbs thường gặp nhất.
Phrasal verbs còn được gọi là cụm động từ và có 2 phần: 1 động từ (VD: look) và một trạng từ (VD: up, out) và phrasal mang một ngữ nghĩa cụ thể. Tức, nghĩa của một cụm động từ sẽ khác với nghĩa riêng rẽ của động từ và trạng từ nằm trong cụm động từ.
Ví dụ: look up = consult ; call off = cancel.
Vì vậy cụm động từ sẽ khá khó đoán nghĩa, muốn biết được nghĩa chính xác của một cụm động từ chỉ có thể tra từ điển.
Sử dụng phrasal verbs như thế nào?
2.1. Phrasal có object đi kèm
- Nếu object là danh từ (Noun) thì object có thể đứng trước hoặc sau adverb.
Mike threw away his old jeans.
Mike threw his old jeans away.
- Nếu object là đại từ (pronoun) thì object có thể đứng trước trạng từ hoặc nói cách khác, sau động từ.
May I take it off?
Một số phrasal verbs có object:
off fill in (a form) find out give up make up pick up sort out throw away turn down switch off …
2.2. Phrasal không có object đi kèm
What time do we have to check in at the airport?
During the week I get up at 7 o’clock.
Một số phrasal verbs không có object:
Be away fall out (argue) give up carry on go out hang on (wait) shut up take off …..
Tổng hợp một số phrasal verbs thường gặp / có thể sử dụng trong Ielts
3.1. Listening and Speaking
- Take up (a hobby): to start to do a new activity, especially for pleasure: bắt đầu một sở thích nào đó.
Ex: I took up the piano when I was 14.
- Look forward to: feel excited about sth that is going to happen: trông đợi
Ex: The President’s visit is eagerly looked forward to.
- Write down /Note down: write or note sth on paper so that you do not forget it.
Ex: There is a handout so you don’t need to write it down.
- Fall out with: to have an argument with sb: tranh cãi với ai đó
Ex: They fell out over their father’s will.
- Break down: stop working because of a fault / fail: bị hư hỏng / thất bại
Ex: The telephone system has broken down.
Negotiations between the two sides have broken down.
- Fill in: complete a form
Ex: To be one of our volunteers, you just need to fill in an application form on our websites.
- Come out: appear / be published or produced: xuất hiện / phát hành, xuất bản.
Ex: The newest novel of Marc Levy will come out this December.
- Blow up: explode or be destroyed by an explosion / become very angry
Ex: The car blew up when it hit the wall: nổ tung / nổi giận
His attitude annoyed me and I blew up.
- Build up: become greater, stronger or larger in number.
Ex: Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is building up due to exhausted emissions from factories and vehicles.
- Hang on: hold on (ask sb to wait for a short time) / depend on sth: đợi một lát / phụ thuộc hoàn toàn.
Ex: Let’s me check it again. Would you like to hand on:
My final results hangs on this dissertation.
- Think up = come up with = conceive of sth: nghĩ ra ý gì đó.
Ex: He has thought up a really good design for a solar powered car.
- Go astray: become lost; to be stolen / go in the wrong direction or to have the wrong result: lạc mất / đi lạc, nhầm phương hướng.
Ex: Several letters went astray or were not delivered.
The argument is so complex, a reader might easily go astray.
- Move in (into) / move out: go to a new house and begin to live there / leave your home and go to live somewhere else: dọn đến nhà mới / dọn ra khỏi nhà
Ex: When will you move into your new flat?
Numerous citizens have recently moved out ò the city and gone to live in the country.
- Come across: cross a room, river, road… / meet or find sth or sb by chance: băng qua / bắt gặp.
Ex: Now you are all at the entrance. To get to the barn, go straight ahead, come across a bridge and turn left. It is at the end of the road.
I came across a TV show about protecting the environment and it really fired me up.
- Read up on: read a lot about sth in order to learn about it.
Ex: I have been reading up on all the reference books but found nothing.
- Settle down: start to have a calmer way of life, living in one place: ổn định cuộc sống.
Ex: He finally gets married and settles down.
- Eat out = dine out: have a meal in a restaurant rather than at home
Ex: In some special occasions, my family usually eats out in a fine-dining restaurant.
- Get together: collect people or things in one place: tụ hợp với nhau, họp mặt
Ex: In the weekend, my family usually hosts a get-together for our relatives to come and have dinner.
- Grow apart: stop having a close relationship with somebody over a period of time: nói về mối quan hệ không còn thân thiết như xưa
Ex: As we got older, we just grew apart.
- Put up with: accept somebody/ something that is annoying, unpleasant, etc. without complaining, (= tolerate) : khoan dung, chịu đựng
Ex: I'm not going to put up with their smoking any longer.
3.2. Reading and Writing
- Catch up with: reach the same level or standard with sth/sb: bắt kịp
Ex: We need to catch up with the development of technology.
- Figure out: tìm ra/ khám phá ra
Ex: Figuring out effective solutions of traffic jam in Vietnam has been a persistent problem.
- Point out = indicate : chỉ ra
Ex: It must be pointed out that this new drug is not a miracle cure.
- Carry on: continue doing something: tiếp tục
Ex: Our younger generation will carry on the long tradition of Tet holiday.
- Wear off: gradually disappear or stop : biến mất
Ex: Any new fashion trends will soon wear off; only style stands.
- Split up: divide something into smaller parts
Ex: The profits were not split up equally among board members. That’s why they are arguing.
- End up with: finally be at a certain state after experiencing a lot.
Ex: The number of tourists travelling to Cuba was on the increase (to 450.000 people) from June to September and finally ended up with 300.000 in the last quarter.
- Run out of: use up or finish a supply of something: hết, cạn kiệt
Ex: Natural resources will soon run out as exceeding human impact such as overfishing, deforestation and oil exploitation.
- Cut down: reduce the size, amount or number of something / make sth fall down by cutting it: cắt giảm / chặt, đốn (cây)
Ex: Recycling cuts down on waste.
- Get rid of = rule out = leave out = do away with: loại bỏ
Ex: The latest nuclear weapon developments rule out the possibility of peace.
- Opt out of: choose not to take part in something: chọn không tham gia vào…
Ex: Britain opted out of European Union in March 2019.
- Sort out: organize something successfully: sắp xếp.
Ex: Sorting out traffic jam in mega cities is always problematic.
- Fall behind: fail to keep level with somebody/something: tụt lại
Ex: Developing countries are falling far behind, especially in terms of technology and education.
- Die out = become extinct: tuyệt chủng.
Ex: A wide range of species are on the verge of dying out.
- Heat up: become hot or warm: nóng lên
Ex: Our globe is heated up by the greenhouse effect.
- Spring up: appear or develop quickly and/or suddenly: xuất hiện bất chợt
Ex: Play areas for children are springing up all over the place.
- Mount up = get much larger: chồng chất, ngày càng nhiều
Ex: National debts in Vietnam are mounting up if the government does not deal with it immediately.
- Bring about = make sth happen
Ex: Depression among the young is brought about by stress, especially from their friends and families.
- Centre around: xoay quanh
Ex: Overall, the nightlife of each city centres around bars, beer clubs and hotels.
- Drop out: no longer take part in or be part of something / leave school, college, etc. without finishing your studies: xa rời tổ chức nào đó / bỏ học
Ex: There is a danger that when people lose their jobs they drop out of society altogether.
Thousands of students drop out each year because they cannot find study interesting.
- Deal with = cope with = handle: solve a problem, perform a task: đối phó với
Ex: Dealing with young offenders is always more challenging.
- Slack off: do something more slowly or with less energy than before: lười làm việc, làm việc không có năng lượng.
Ex: Most of the workers usually slack off when national holidays are near.
- Lay off: sa thải
Ex: Due to bankruptcy, the company has to lay off 200 employees.
- Throw away: vứt bỏ
Ex: People needs to develop a habit of not throwing away trash on the street.
- Use up: use all of something so that there is none left: sử dụng
Ex: Humans have been using up the Earth’s resources.
- Sum up: state the main points of something in a short and clear form (=summarize): tóm lại
Ex: To sum up, from my perspective, the benefits of advertising clearly outweigh its drawbacks.
- Bring up: care for a child, teaching him or her how to behave (=raise): nuôi nấng.
Ex: One of typical social convention is that child-rearing and bringing them up are only women’s role in the family.
Writen by IELTS Vietop.