Mệnh đề quan hệ (Relative clause) trong IELTS

Mệnh đề quan hệ là một mệnh đề dùng để giải thích cho một danh từ đứng trước nó. Đây là một cấu trúc rất thường dùng và có ích trong những câu để lấy điểm cao trong phần thi IELTS Writing và Speaking.

Mệnh đề quan hệ bắt đầu với Đại từ quan hệ hoặc Trạng từ quan hệ

Mệnh đề quan hệ - Relative clause

Mệnh đề quan hệ - Relative clause

Đại từ quan hệ

Mục đích

Ví dụ

Who

Đóng vai trò chủ ngữ, chỉ người

She is the person who taught me English.

Which

Đóng vai trò chủ ngữ hoặc túc từ, chỉ đồ vật, động vật hoặc câu trước nó

This book is the present which my sister gave me on my birthday last year.

Whose

Chỉ sở hữu

Mary, whose sister is Jen, called me yesterday.

Whom

Chỉ túc từ đại diện cho người

Jennifer Lopez, whom I admire, divorced last year.

That

Chỉ dùng trong mệnh dề xác định, dùng để chỉ người, vật

The high school that I went to is in my hometown.

Trạng từ quan hệ

Mục đích

Ví dụ

When

Chỉ thời gian

Do you remember the time when I first met you?

Where

Chỉ nơi chốn

The place where I was born in is a stunning city.

Why

Chỉ lí do

The reason why I got the scholarship is a secret.

Các loại mệnh đề quan hệ:

Phân loại

Miêu tả

Ví dụ

Chi tiết

Mệnh đề xác định

Mệnh đề quan hệ xác định dùng để bổ nghĩa cho danh từ trước nó. Mệnh đề này đóng vai trò không thể thiếu trong câu dùng nó vì nếu thiếu nó, câu sẽ không có nghĩa.

The student who came to the class late yesterday is my cousin.

Với mệnh đề này, không có dấu phẩy trước đại từ quan hệ “who”.

Mệnh đề không xác định

Mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định dùng để bổ nghĩa cho danh từ trước nó. Không có mệnh đề này thì câu vẫn đủ nghĩa.

I usually visit Landmark 81, which is the highest building in Ho Chi Minh City.

Với mệnh đề này, phải có một dấu phẩy trước đại từ quan hệ “which”.

Cách rút gọn mệnh đề quan hệ

1. Mệnh đề quan hệ chỉ túc từ

Ex: He is the most attractive guy that (whom) I have ever met.

-> He is the most attractive guy I have ever met.

Giải thích: Trong ví dụ này, “that” hoặc “whom” thay cho túc từ trong câu (the guy) nên có thể được lược bỏ.

2. Mệnh đề quan hệ chỉ chủ ngữ

  • Chủ động: lược bỏ đại từ quan hệ + to be và Verb -> Verb-ing

Ex 1: The boy who asked for your help yesterday is my nephew.

-> The boy asking for your help yesterday is my nephew.

Ex 2: The baby who was crying the whole night was left in front of our door.

-> The baby crying the whole night was left in front of our door.

Ex 3: That pink book, which was the bestseller last month, was written by him.

-> That pink book, the bestseller last month, was written by him.

Giải thích:

Ex1: Trong câu này, đại từ quan hệ “who” thay cho chủ ngữ “the boy”. Khi lược bỏ đại từ quan hệ, ta lược bỏ who và chuyển từ V sang V-ing (who asked -> asking).

Ex2: trong ví dụ này, đại từ quan hệ “who” thay cho chủ ngữ “the baby”. Khi lược bỏ đại từ quan hệ, ta lược bỏ who + to be, V-ing vẫn giữ nguyên (who was crying -> crying).

Ex3: trong ví dụ này, đại từ quan hệ “which” thay cho chủ ngữ “that pink book”. Khi lược bỏ đại từ quan hệ, ta lược bỏ which + to be (which was the bestseller last month -> the best seller last month).

  • Bị động: lược bỏ đại từ quan hệ + to be và giữ nguyên Verb cột 3

Ex: The song which was made by him was bought by a big company.

-> The song made by him was bought by a big company.

Giải thích:

Trong ví dụ này, đại từ quan hệ “which” thay cho chủ ngữ “the song”. Khi lược bỏ đại từ quan hệ, ta lược bỏ which + to be và giữ nguyên Verb cột 3 (which was made  made).

Exercise

1. Fill in the blank with who, which, whose

  1. This is the bank ______ was robbed yesterday.
  2. A boy ______ sister is in my class was in the bank at that time.
  3. The man ______ robbed the bank had two pistols.
  4. He wore a mask ______ made him look like Mickey Mouse.
  5. He came with a friend ______ waited outside in the car.
  6. The woman ______ gave him the money was young.
  7. The bag ______ contained the money was yellow.
  8. The people ______ were in the bank were very frightened.
  9. A man ______ mobile was ringing did not know what to do.
  10. A woman ______ daughter was crying tried to calm her.
  11. The car ______ the bank robbers escaped in was orange.
  12. The robber ______ mask was obviously too big didn't drive.
  13. The man ______ drove the car was nervous.
  14. He didn't wait at the traffic lights ______ were red.
  15. A police officer ______ car was parked at the next corner stopped and arrested them.

2. Join these sentences using relative pronouns, and omit the pronouns if possible.

  1. My school is very big. It is in Madrid.
    -> My school ………….. is very big.
  2. Robert Pattinson is an actor. He plays Edward Cullen in the Twilight saga.
    -> Robert Pattinson is …………….
  3. I bought this cake yesterday. It tastes delicious.
    -> The cake ……….. tastes delicious.
  4. Michael is a policeman. His father is a judge.
    -> Michael ………… is a policeman.
  5. I bought a computer last month. It doesn't work properly.
    -> The computer ……….. doesn't work properly.
  6. Prince Charles will be the king of England one day. His mother is Queen Elizabeth.
    -> Prince Charles ………. will be the king of England one day.
  7. I was given a dog. It is very friendly.
    -> The dog ………… is very friendly.
  8. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn was written by Mark Twain. I enjoyed it a lot.
    -> The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn …………… was written by Mark Twain.
  9. Mrs Kelly is the woman. She took me to hospital when I fainted at school.
    -> Mrs Kelly is the woman ………………..

Answers

1. 

  1. This is the bank which was robbed yesterday.
  2. A boy whose sister is in my class was in the bank at that time.
  3. The man who robbed the bank had two pistols.
  4. He wore a mask which made him look like Mickey Mouse.
  5. He came with a friend who waited outside in the car.
  6. The woman who gave him the money was young.
  7. The bag which contained the money was yellow.
  8. The people who were in the bank were very frightened.
  9. A man whose mobile was ringing did not know what to do.
  10. A woman whose daughter was crying tried to calm her.
  11. The car which the bank robbers escaped in was orange.
  12. The robber whose mask was obviously too big didn't drive.
  13. The man who drove the car was nervous.
  14. He didn't wait at the traffic lights which were red.
  15. A police officer whose car was parked at the next corner stopped and arrested them.

2. 

  1. My school is very big. It is in Madrid.
    -> My school, which is in Madrid, is very big.
  2. Robert Pattinson is an actor. He plays Edward Cullen in the Twilight saga.
    -> Robert Pattinson is the actor who plays Edward Cullen in the Twilight Saga
  3. I bought this cake yesterday. It tastes delicious.
    -> The cake I bought yesterday tastes delicious.
  4. Michael is a policeman. His father is a judge.
    -> Michael, whose father is a judge, is a policeman.
  5. I bought a computer last month. It doesn't work properly.
    -> The computer I bought last month doesn't work properly.
  6. Prince Charles will be the king of England one day. His mother is Queen Elizabeth.
    -> Prince Charles, whose mother is Queen Elizabeth, will be the king of England one day.
  7. I was given a dog. It is very friendly.
    -> The dog I was given is very friendly.
  8. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn was written by Mark Twain. I enjoyed it a lot.
    -> The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, which I enjoyed a lot, was written by Mark Twain
  9. Mrs Kelly is the woman. She took me to hospital when I fainted at school.
    -> Mrs Kelly is the woman who took me to hospital when I fainted at school.

Trên đây là toàn bộ kiến thức về mệnh đề quan hệ,  mong nó sẽ giúp ích được cho bạn trong quá trình luyện thi IELTS. Chúc bạn học tập thật tốt nhé.

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