Passive Voice – Cấu trúc bị động được sử dụng trong IELTS Writing như thế nào?

Trong hành trình chinh phục bài thi IELTS Writing thì bạn không thể nào bỏ qua Passive Voice - cấu trúc bị động. Hãy cùng IELTS Vietop cùng tìm hiểu và cách sử dụng cấu trúc này trong bài thi IELTS Writing như thế nào?

Active Voice and Passive Voice

Active Voice and Passive Voice

  • Câu chủ động (Active Voice): là câu trong đó chủ ngữ là người/vật thực hiện hành động.

Examples:

  • They built this house 20 years ago. (Họ đã xây tòa nhà này 20 năm về trước)
  • Company A employs 50 people. (Công ty A tuyển dụng 50 người)
  • Câu bị động (Passive Voice): là câu trong đó chủ ngữ là người/vật nhận hoặc chịu tác động của hành động.

Examples:

  • This house was built 20 years ago. (Tòa nhà này đã được xây 20 năm về trước)
  • 50 people are employed by Company A. (50 người được tuyển dụng bởi công ty A)

Mục đích sử dụng câu bị động

  • Khi dùng câu bị động, ai hoặc cái gì gây ra hành động đó thường không rõ hoặc không quan trọng.

Examples:

  • This house was built 20 years ago. (Ai đó đã xây căn nhà này, nhưng không rõ/không quan trọng đối tượng là ai)
  • 50 people are employed. (50 người được tuyển dụng, nhưng không rõ/không quan trọng được tuyển bởi ai)
  • Khi dùng câu bị động, nếu bạn muốn nhấn mạnh ai hoặc cái gì thực hiện hành động đó, bạn có thể dùng giới từ by + đối tượng cụ thể sẽ được sử dụng:

Examples:

  • This house was built 20 years ago by my grandfather.
  • 50 people are employed by Company A.

2. Cấu trúc cơ bản của câu bị động

S + be (is/was/…) + past participle (done/cleaned/seen/…)

Dưới đây là các cấu trúc câu bị động của một số thì tiếng Anh phổ biến:

TENSES

PASSIVE STRUCTURE

Present Simple

My grandfather builds this house.

S + am/is/are + past participle

This house is built.

Present Continuous

My grandfather is building this house.

S + am/is/are being + past participle

This house is being built.

Present Perfect

My grandfather has built this house.

S + have/has been + past participle

This house has been built.

Past Simple

My grandfather built this house.

S + was/were + past participle

This house was built.

Future Simple

My grandfather will build this house.

S + will be + past participle

This house will be built.

3. Bài tập ứng dụng

Exercise 1: Complete the sentences using one of these verbs in the correct form, present or past:

Example: Many accidents are caused by dangerous driving.

  1. Cheese _____________________________ from milk.
  2. The roof of the building __________________________________ in a storm few days ago.
  3. You __________________________________ to the wedding. Why didn’t you go?
  4. A cinema is a place where films _________________________________.
  5. In the United States, elections for president _____________________________ every four years.
  6. Originally the book ______________________ in Spanish, and a few years ago it __________________ into English.
  7. Although we were driving fast, we __________________________ by a lot of other cars.
  8. You can’t see the house from the road. It _______________________________ by trees.

Exercise 2: Put the verb in the correct form, present simple or past simple, by using passive structures

Example: It is a big factory. Five hundred people are employed (employ) there.

  1. How much of the earth's surface ______________________ (cover) by water?
  2. The park gates ______________________ (lock) at 6.30 p.m. every evening.
  3. The letter __________________ (send) a week ago and it __________________ (arrive) yesterday.
  4. While I was on holiday, my camera _____________________ (steal) from my hotel room.
  5. The company is not independent. It ____________________ (own) by a much larger company.
  6. This room __________________________ (clean) every day.
  7. How much money ________________________ (steal) in the robbery?

Exercise 3: Read the model answer to the following essay question. Choose the correct form of the verb.

The increase in the number of privately owned cars is having a negative impact on both our towns and the environment.


What can individuals and the government do to reduce this problem?

The number of people who own a car (1) is rising / is being risen year upon year, but this is causing both traffic congestion and air pollution. I believe this issue (2) will only resolve / will only be resolved if individual car owners make an effort to share transport and governments improve public transport systems. 

The first way to address the problem is for individual citizens to make an effort (3) to use / to be used their cars less. Of course, there are times when using a car is unavoidable, like when you have to travel long distances or need to travel during the night, but many times we use our cars for short journeys that could just as easily (4) make / be made on foot. If car owners decided to never drive a distance that they could walk, this would cut down significantly the amount of traffic in our towns and cities. Moreover, when people travel to the same places on a regular basis, such as the office or the gym, they should try to share the trip with a friend or family member. Far too many car journeys today (5) is made / are made with only one person in the vehicle. If everybody carpooled with their colleagues tomorrow, car use (6) could reduce / could be reduced by more than 50% overnight.

There is also a range of ways that the government (7) could be helped / could help alleviate the problem. Firstly, the main reason why people choose to travel by car is the poor public transport service currently (8) is offering / being offered in many cities. There are far too few bus services run even in major cities, and until people can be sure that they will never have to wait more than 10 minutes for a bus, they will choose to drive. The same is true of Metro services, which run well during the day but stop functioning fat too early in the evening to be a viable alternative to cars. In addition, governments (9) should do / should be done more to reward people who drive with one passenger or more in their cars. In Australia, there are special lanes for cars like these, and as these tend to move much more quickly than the regular traffic, more and more people are choosing to carpool every year.

To conclude, only when individuals start sharing cars and governments improve public transport infrastructure, will the will the problem of increased road traffic (10) solve / be solved.

Đáp án tham khảo

Exercise 1:

  1. Cheese is made from milk.
  2. The roof of the building was damaged in a storm few days ago.
  3. You were invited to the wedding. Why didn’t you go?
  4. A cinema is a place where films are shown.
  5. In the United States, elections for president are held every four years.
  6. Originally the book was written in Spanish, and a few years ago it was translated into English.
  7. Although we were driving fast, we were overtaken by a lot of other cars.
  8. You can’t see the house from the road. It is surrounded by trees.

Exercise 2:

  1. How much of the earth's surface is covered by water?
  2. The park gates are locked at 6.30 p.m. every evening.
  3. The letter was sent a week ago and it was arrived yesterday.
  4. While I was on holiday, my camera was stolen from my hotel room.
  5. The company is not independent. It is owned by a much larger company.
  6. This room is cleaned every day.
  7. How much money is stolen/was stolen in the robbery? (câu này có thể sử dụng cả thì hiện tại đơn và quá khứ đơn, do không mốc rõ thời gian)

Exercise 3:

The increase in the number of privately owned cars is having a negative impact on both our towns and the environment.


What can individuals and the government do to reduce this problem?

The number of people who own a car (1) is rising year upon year, but this is causing both traffic congestion and air pollution. I believe this issue (2) will only be resolved if individual car owners make an effort to share transport and governments improve public transport systems.

The first way to address the problem is for individual citizens to make an effort (3) to use their cars less. Of course, there are times when using a car is unavoidable, like when you have to travel long distances or need to travel during the night, but many times we use our cars for short journeys that could just as easily (4) be made on foot. If car owners decided to never drive a distance that they could walk, this would cut down significantly the amount of traffic in our towns and cities. Moreover, when people travel to the same places on a regular basis, such as the office or the gym, they should try to share the trip with a friend or family member. Far too many car journeys today (5) are made with only one person in the vehicle. If everybody carpooled with their colleagues tomorrow, car use (6) could be reduced by more than 50% overnight

There is also a range of ways that the government (7) could help alleviate the problem. Firstly, the main reason why people choose to travel by car is the poor public transport service currently (8) being offered in many cities. There are far too few bus services run even in major cities, and until people can be sure that they will never have to wait more than 10 minutes for a bus, they will choose to drive. The same is true of Metro services, which run well during the day but stop functioning fat too early in the evening to be a viable alternative to cars. In addition, governments (9) should do more to reward people who drive with one passenger or more in their cars. In Australia, there are special lanes for cars like these, and as these tend to move much more quickly than the regular traffic, more and more people are choosing to carpool every year.

To conclude, only when individuals start sharing cars and governments improve public transport infrastructure, will the will the problem of increased road traffic (10) be solved.

Trên đây là một số kiến thức về cấu trúc câu bị động và cách chuyển đổi bạn có thể tham khảo để vận dụng vào các bài thi IELTS Writing và đạt được kết quả tốt nhất nhé!

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