Cách sử dụng câu điều kiện trong Tiếng Anh

Câu điều kiện là câu dùng để nêu ra giả thuyết về một sự vật, sự việc, hiện tượng  mà nó có thể hoặc không thể xảy ra ở hiện tại, quá khứ hay tương lai. Cùng IELTS Vietop tìm hiểu điểm ngữ pháp này các sử dụng trong các bài thi IELTS.

Câu điều kiện gồm hai mệnh đề: Mệnh đề If (mệnh đề điều kiện) và mệnh đề kết quả (mệnh đề chính). Hai mệnh đề này có thể đổi vị trí qua lại trong câu.

Ex:

  • If it rains, I will stay at home.
  • I will stay at home if it rains.

1. Câu điều kiện loại 1 (First Conditional )

  • Mục đích: Miêu tả một việc có thể xảy ra trong hiện tại.
  • Công thức:

If + hiện tại đơn, S + will + Vo (+O)

Ex: If you go to work late, you will be yelled at. (Nếu bạn đi làm muộn, bạn sẽ bị mắng.)

2. Câu điều kiện loại 2 (Second Conditional)

  • Mục đích: Miêu tả một sự việc không thể xảy ra.
  • Công thức:

If + quá khứ đơn, S + would + Vo (+O)

Ex: If I could fly, I would travel to the Moon.

3. Câu điều kiện loại 3 (Third Conditional)

  • Mục đích: Miêu tả một sự việc không thể xảy ra trong quá khứ.
  • Công thức:

If + quá khứ hoàn thành, S + would have + V3 (+O)

Ex: If I hadn’t slept this noon, I would not have come to the class late.

Bài tập

A. Fill in the blanks

1. If we meet at 9:30, we (to have) plenty of time.

2. Lisa would find the milk if she (to look) in the fridge.

3. The zookeeper would have punished her with a fine if she (to feed) the animals.

4. If you spoke louder, your classmates (to understand) you.

5. Dan (to arrive) safe if he drove slowly.

6. You (to have) no trouble at school if you had done your homework.

7. If you (to swim) in this lake, you'll shiver from cold.

8. The door will unlock   if you (to press) the green button.

9. If Mel (to ask) her teacher, he'd have answered her questions.

10. I (to call) the office if I was/were you.

B. Multiple choice

1. If I _____ a computer, it would do everything for me.

a. would have

b. had

c. had had

d. will have

2. If you drink this, you _____ young forever.

a. stays 

b. would stay

c. didn´t stay

d. will stay

3. Do you think pigs _____ if they had wings?

a. will fly

b. would fly

c. wouldn´t have flown

d. flew

4. If the professor _____ a magic drink, he would have become famous.

a. had invented

b. will invent

c. would have invented

d. invented

5. If you had lived a hundred years ago, what _____ your life _____ like?

a. would has been

b. would be

c. would have been

d. will be

6. If the room _____ tidy, Mum will be happy.

a. was

b. is

c. will be 

d. were

7. She _____ the computer if it broke down.

a. will repair

b. repairs

c. would repair 

d. repaired

8. We would have gone jogging if it _____.

a. not had rained

b. hasn´t rained

c. hadn´t rained

d. rains

9. John _____ on the light if it had been dark.

a. would turn

b. turned

c. would have turned

d. turns

10. If you pack your things quickly, we _____ it to the bus.

a. makes

b. make

c. made

d. will make

C. Rewrite these sentences using If

1. They didn’t go out because it rained.

If it ________________________________________________.

2. They won the match because they scored in the last minute.

They would _______________________________________.

3. I had to go to summer school because I failed my exams.

I wouldn’t__________________________________________.

4. I didn’t go to the concert because I didn’t know about it.

If I ________________________________________________.

5. She doesn’t know how to make a cake, otherwise she would do it herself

If she______________________________________________.

6.You should save money to buy that computer

If you______________________________________________.

7.My sister can’t sew, otherwise she would make her own clothes

If my sister_________________________________________.

Đáp án

A. Fill in the blanks

1. If we meet at 9:30, we will have plenty of time.

2. Lisa would find the milk if she looked in the fridge.

3. The zookeeper would have punished her with a fine if she had fed the animals.

4. If you spoke louder, your classmates would understand you.

5. Dan would arrive safe if he drove slowly.

6. You would have had no trouble at school if you had done your homework.

7. If you swim in this lake, you'll shiver from cold.

8. The door will unlock if you press the green button.

9. If Mel had asked her teacher, he'd have answered her questions.

10. I would call the office if I was/were you.

B. Multiple choice

1. B        2. D         3. B         4. A         5. C         6. B         7. C         8. C         9. C         10. D

C. Rewrite these sentences using If

1. If it hadn’t rained, they would have gone out.

2. They would have lost the match if they hadn’t scored in the last minute.

3. I wouldn’t have gone to summer school if I hadn’t failed my exams.

4. If I had known about the concert, I would have gone there.

5. If she knew how to make cake, she would do it herself.

6. If you save money, you can buy that computer.

7. If my sister could sew, she would make her own clothes.

Cùng tìm hiểu thêm:

Bạn có thể áp dụng điểm ngữ pháp câu điều kiện trên trong bài thi IELTS Writing và giao tiếp trong công việc và cuộc sống hằng ngày. Hãy chia sẻ bài viết này nếu bạn thấy hữu ích nhé!

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