IELTS Reading Practice 3

Trang Nguyen
IELTS Reading Practice 3

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40. which are based on Reading Passage 157 below.

Forests are one of the main elements of our natural heritage. The decline of Europe’s forests over the last decade and a half has led to an increasing awareness and understanding of the serious imbalances which threaten them. European countries are becoming increasingly concerned by major threats to European forests, threats which know no frontiers other than those of geography or climate: air pollution, soil deterioration, the increasing number of forest fires and sometimes even the mismanagement of our woodland and forest heritage. There has been a growing awareness of the need for countries to get together to co-ordinate their policies. In December 1990, Strasbourg hosted the first Ministerial Conference on the protection of Europe’s forests. The conference brought together 31 countries from both Western and Eastern Europe. The topics discussed included the co-ordinate study of the destruction of forests, as well as how to combat forest fires and the extension of European research programs on the forest ecosystem. The preparatory work for the conference had been undertaken at two meetings of experts. Their initial task was to decide which of the many forest problems of concern to Europe involved the largest number of countries and might be the subject of joint action. Those confined to particular geographical areas, such as countries bordering the Mediterranean or the Nordic countries therefore had to be discarded. However, this does not mean that in future they will be ignored.

As a whole, European countries see forests as performing a triple function: biological, economic and recreational. The first is to act as a ‘green lung’ for our planet; by means of photosynthesis, forests produce oxygen through the transformation of solar energy, thus fulfilling what for humans is the essential role of an immense, non-polluting power plant. At the same time, forests provide raw materials for human activities through their constantly renewed production of wood. Finally, they offer those condemned to spend five days a week in an urban environment an unrivalled area of freedom to unwind and take part in a range of leisure activities, such as hunting, riding and hiking. The economic importance of forests has been understood since the dawn of man – wood was the first fuel. The other aspects have been recognised only for a few centuries but they are becoming more and more important. Hence, there is a real concern throughout Europe about the damage to the forest environment which threatens these three basic roles.

The myth of the ‘natural’ forest has survived, yet there are effectively no remaining ‘primary’ forests in Europe. All European forests are artificial, having been adapted and exploited by man for thousands of years. This means that a forest policy is vital, that it must transcend national frontiers and generations of people, and that ft must allow for the inevitable changes that take place in the forests, in needs, and hence in policy. The Strasbourg conference was one of the first events on such a scale to reach this conclusion. A general declaration was made that ‘a central place in any ecologically coherent forest policy must be given to continuity over time and to the possible effects of unforeseen events, to ensure that the full potential of these forests is maintained’.

That general declaration was accompanied by six detailed resolutions to 3ssist national policy­making. The first proposes the extension and systematic sitter of surveillance sites to monitor forest decline. Forest decline is still poorly understood but leads to the loss of a high proportion of a tree’s needles or leaves. The entire continent and the majority of species are now affected: between 30% and 50% of the tree population. The condition appears to result from the cumulative effect of a number of factors, with atmospheric pollutants the principal culprits. Compounds of nitrogen and sulphur dioxide should be particularly closely watched. However, their effects are probably accentuated by climatic factors, such as drought and hard winters, or soil imbalances such as soil acidification, which damages to roots. The second resolution concentrates on the need to preserve the genetic diversity of European forests. The aim is to reverse the decline in the number of tree species or at least to preserve the ‘genetic material’ of all of them. Although forest fires do not affect all of Europe to the same extent the amount of damage caused the experts to propose as the third resolution that the Strasbourg conference consider the establishment of a European databank on the subject. All information used in the development of national preventative policies would become generally available. The subject of the fourth resolution discussed by the ministers was mountain forests. In Europe, it is undoubtedly the mountain ecosystem which has changed most rapidly and is most at risk. A thinly scattered permanent population and development of. leisure activities, particularly skiing, have resulted in significant long-term changes to the local ecosystems. Proposed developments include a preferential research program on mountain forests. The fifth resolution relented the European research network on the physiology of trees, called  Euro Silva should support joint European research on tree diseases and their physiological and biochemical aspects. Each country concerned could increase “the number of scholarships and other financial support for doctoral theses and research projects in this area, finally, the conference established the framework for a European research network on forest ecosystems. This would also involve harmonizing activities in individual countries as well as identifying a number of priority research topics relating to the protection of forests The Strasbourg conference’s main concern was to provide for the future. This was the initial motivation, one now shared by all 31 participants representing 31 European countries. Their final text commits them to on-going discussion between government representatives with responsibility for forests.

Xem thêm: Kỹ năng Scanning và Skimming trong IELTS Reading

Questions 27-33
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 157?
In boxes 27-33 on your answer sheet, write:

TRUE   if the statement agrees with the information-
FALSE    if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN   if there is no information on this

27. Forest problems of Mediterranean countries are to be discussed at the next meeting of experts.
28. Problems in Nordic countries were excluded because they are outside the European – Economic Community.
29. Forests are a renewable source of raw material.
30. The biological functions of forests were recognised only in the twentieth century.
31. Natural forests still exist in parts of Europe.
32. Forest policy should be limited by national boundaries.
33. The Strasbourg conference decided that a forest policy must allow for the possibility of change.

Questions 34-39
Look at the following statements issued by the conference.
Which six of the following statements. A-J, refer to the resolutions that were issued?

Match the statements with the appropriate resolutions (Questions 34-39).
Write the correct letter. A-J. in boxes 34-39 on your answer sheet.

A. All kinds of species of trees should be preserved.
B.  Fragile mountain forests should be given priority in research programs.
C.  The surviving natural forests of Europe do not need priority treatment.
D.  Research is to be better co-ordinate throughout Europe:
E.  Information on forest fires should be collected and shared.
F.  Loss Of leaves from trees should be more extensively and carefully monitored
G.  Resources should be allocated to research into tree diseases.
H.  Skiing should be encouraged in thinly populated areas.
I.  Soil imbalances such as acidification should be treated with compounds of nitrogen and sulphur.
J.  Information is to be systematically gathered on any decline in the condition of forests.

Xem thêm:

34.  Resolution 1
35.  Resolution 2
36.  Resolution 3
37.  Resolution 4
38.  Resolution 5
39.  Resolution 6

Question 40
Choose the correct letter, A. B, C or D.
Write the correct letter in box 40 on your answer sheet

40.  What is the best title for Reading Passage 157?
A  The biological, economic and recreational role of forests
B  Plans to protect the forests of Europe
C The priority of European research into ecosystems
D Proposals for a world-wide policy on forest management

29. TRUE
33. TRUE
34. J
35. A
36. E
37. B
38. G
39. D
40. B

(Sưu tầm)

IELTS Vietop

Bài viết liên quan:

Review English Collocations In Use
Review trọn bộ English Collocations In Use Intermediate & Advanced
Bạn có bao giờ nghĩ khi học IELTS thì có cần Collocations hay không? Đối với phần thi IELTS Speaking và Writing thì Collocations chính là những cụm từ giúp bài thi của bạn được chú ý hơn và...
Tổng hợp kiến thức cấu trúc Propose trong tiếng Anh
Tổng hợp kiến thức cấu trúc Propose trong tiếng Anh
Trong bài viết bên dưới, chúng ta sẽ cùng học về cấu trúc Propose trong tiếng Anh. Propose là một từ có nhiều nghĩa khác nhau, cần một thời gian làm quen thì mới có thể thành thạo. Cùng...
Từ vựng tiếng Anh chuyên ngành Điện
Từ vựng tiếng Anh chuyên ngành Điện
Điện là chủ đề quen thuộc khi học tiếng Anh tiếng Anh – bởi nó là chủ đề thiết yếu trong cuộc sống hằng ngày. Vậy đâu là những từ vựng tiếng Anh chuyên ngành điện mà chúng ta...
Back to the future of skyscraper design
Back to the future of skyscraper design
Answers to the problem of excessive electricity use by skyscrapers and large public buildings can be found in ingenious but forgotten architectural designs of the 19th and early-20th centuries A The Recovery of Natural Environments in Architecture by Professor...
Review English grammar in Use for Intermediate - Sách ngữ pháp hay nên học
Review English grammar in Use for Intermediate – Sách ngữ pháp hay nên học
IELTS Vietop chia sẻ với bạn đọc cuốn sách English grammar in use dành cho các bạn đang ôn lại ngữ pháp hoặc đang bắt đầu luyện thi IELTS từ con số 0. Cuốn sách này đã được bổ...
Review Cambridge IELTS 12
Cuốn Cambridge IELTS 12 là cuốn sách được xuất bản vào năm 2017, nhưng đến nay nó vẫn là một tài liệu không thể thiếu đối với các bạn đang luyện thi IELTS. Hãy cùng IELTS Vietop tìm hiểu...

Bài nổi bật

Các khóa học IELTS tại Vietop

Khóa học IELTS 1 kèm 1
Chỉ 1 thầy 1 trò, chắc chắn đạt điểm IELTS đầu ra mong muốn.
Khóa học IELTS Youth
Giấc mơ du học trong tầm tay. Dành cho học sinh cấp 2, cấp 3.
Khóa học IELTS Cấp tốc
Cam kết tăng ít nhất 1.0 band điểm chỉ sau 1 tháng học.
Khóa học IELTS General
Hoàn thiện giấc mơ định cư và làm việc tại nước ngoài.
Khóa học IELTS Writing
Chỉ sau 10 buổi tăng 1.0 band IELTS Writing.
Khóa học IELTS Online
Cam kết tăng 0.5 -1.0 band score chỉ sau 80 giờ học.
Tổng hợp bài mẫu đề thi IELTS Writing Quý 1/2021
Bộ Forecast IELTS Speaking quý 2/2021 – version 1.0