Ngoài so sánh hơn – comparative hay so sánh nhất – superlative thì so sánh bằng – equality cũng đóng vai trò hết sức quan trọng trong ngữ pháp tiếng Anh, được sử dụng trong giao tiếp hằng ngày và cả trong những kỳ thi quan trọng như IELTS, TOEIC,…
Tổng quan về so sánh bằng trong tiếng Anh
Trong tiếng Anh, cấu trúc ngữ pháp so sánh bằng – Comparison of equality hay gọi tắt là Equality, được sử dụng khi ta so sánh, nhận xét hai hoặc nhiều sự vật, hiện tượng,… theo một tiêu chí nào đó mà chúng đều ngang bằng nhau, KHÔNG có sự khác biệt.
E.g.: Tim’s grown so much. He’s as tall as his father now. (Tim đã lớn lên rất nhiều. Bây giờ nó cao bằng bố của nó.)
The second game didn’t go as well as the first one. (Trận đấu thứ hai không diễn ra tốt như trận đầu tiên.)
Các dạng so sánh bằng trong tiếng Anh
Dạng khẳng định
Công thức với tính từ và trạng từ: S + V + as + adj/adv + as + noun/pronoun/ clause
E.g.: My football team is still as good as it was five years ago. (Đội bóng của tôi vẫn tốt như cách đây 5 năm.)
Công thức với động từ: S + V + as + many/much/little/few + as + noun/pronoun
E.g.: He also works as much as his girlfriend. (Anh ấy cũng làm việc nhiều như bạn gái của mình.)
Công thức với danh từ: S + V + as + many/much/little/few + noun + as + noun/pronoun
E.g.: No team scores as many points as that team. (Không đội nào ghi được nhiều điểm như đội đó.)
Dạng phủ định
Công thức với tính từ và trạng từ: S + V + not as/so + adj/adv + as + N/pronoun
E.g.: My football team is not as good as it was five years ago. (Đội bóng của tôi không tốt như cách đây 5 năm.)
Công thức với động từ: S + not + V + as + many/much/little/few + as + noun/pronoun
E.g.: He doesn’t works as much as his girlfriend. (Anh ấy không làm việc nhiều như bạn gái của mình.)
Công thức với danh từ: S + not + V + as + many/much/little/few + noun + as + noun/pronoun
E.g.: This team doesn’t score as many points as that team. (Đội này không ghi được điểm nhiều như đội đó.)
Khi so sánh chỉ sự khác nhau (khác chứ không phải hơn kém), ta có thể dùng công thức:
S + to be + different from + noun/pronoun
E.g.: China is different from Vietnam. (Trung Quốc thì khác Việt Nam.)
Khi so sánh bằng với danh từ, ta có thể sử dụng công thức sau:
S + V + the same + (N) + as + N/Pronouns
E.g.: He’s the same age as me.
Trong một số câu, ta có thể chuyển từ cấu trúc “the same … as” sang “as … as”và ngược lại.
E.g.: He’s the same age as me. = He’s as old as I am.
His room is the same size as mine. = His room is as big/small as mine.
Bài tập so sánh bằng
Bài 1: Complete the sentences below, using either “as … as” or “not as … as”
- Sam is ___________ me. (tall )
- Portugal is ___________ Spain. (not big)
- I am ___________ Pamela. (smart)
- A rabbit is ___________ a fox. (not fast)
- Helen’s hair is ___________ Sara’s. (long)
- You are___________ always. (happy)
- A cat is ___________ a tiger. (not dangerous)
- She is ___________ me. (intelligent)
- Bananas are___________ apples. (good)
- Sweden is ___________ Mexico. (not hot)
Bài 2: Rewrite the sentences, using “the same as” or “different from”
- My house is small and old. Your house is spacious and modern.
- My house is ____________________________________.
- Life in the countryside is quiet and peaceful. Life in the city is exciting.
- Life in the city ____________________________________.
- I have black hair. Alice’s hair is also black.
- Alice’s hair is ____________________________________.
- My favourite subject is Math. My sister is also interested in Math.
- My sister is ____________________________________.
- I am 13 years old. My best friend is also 13 years old.
- My best friend ____________________________________.
- My mother’s favourite food is noodles. My favourite food is bread.
- My favourite food ____________________________________.
- The musician on TV is playing the piano. I am also playing the piano. (use “instrument”)
- The musician on TV ____________________________________.
- The number of students in this class is 40. That class also has 40 students.
- This class has ____________________________________.
Bài 3: Write the comparison of equality for the sentences below
E.g.: John is 30 years old. Anna is 30 years old. (is/old)
- John is as old as Anna.
- Kate works harder than Jim. (work/hard)
- Jim ____________ Kate.
- This province is 40ºC in summer. That province is also 40ºC in summer. (is/hot)
- This province ____________ that province.
- Maria did better on the English test than Linda. (do/well)
- Linda ____________ Maria.
- The first exam was difficult. The second exam was difficult too. (was/difficult)
- The first exam ____________ the second exam.
- The impala runs 90km per hour. The cheetah runs 120km per hour. (run/fast)
- The impala ____________ the cheetah.
- Mrs Smith talks very quietly. Mrs Brown talks more loudly. (talk/quietly)
- Mrs Brown ____________ Mrs Smith.
- My house is 50 years old. His house is 50 years old. (is/old)
- My house ____________ his house.
- Penny is 12 years old. Darwin is 10 years old. (is/young)
- Penny ____________ Darwin.
Bài 4: Complete the sentences below, using either “as … as” or “not as … as”
- The green car is ____________ the purple car. (fast)
- Jim is ____________ Andy. (not/tall)
- The violin is ____________ the cello. (not/low)
- This copy is ____________ the other one. (bad)
- My sister is ____________ I am. (optimistic)
- Today it’s ____________ yesterday. (not/windy)
- This soup was ____________ that soup. (delicious)
- Grapefruit juice is ____________ lemonade. (not/sweet)
- Amanda is ____________ Mandy. (brave)
- Silver is ____________ gold. (not/heavy)
Bài 5: Choose the correct answer
- My phone __________ your phone.
A. is as not expensive as
B. is not as expensive as
C. as expensive not as
D.is not as expensively as
- You must explain your problem ________ .
A. as clear as you can
B. as clearly as you can
C. as clear that you are
D. as clearly as you are
- Nobody in our class plays_______ Nathan.
A.as good as
B. so well than
C. as best as
D. as well as
- Her house is ______ mine.
A. twice as big as
B. as twice big as
C.as two time big as
D. as big as twice
- My clothes ________ hers.
A. is as not modern as
B. as is modern as
C. is as modern as
D. as is modern not as
- Your car is ________ mine.
A. as bigger as
B. as big as
C. much big as
D. not many times big
- Impalas cannot run as ________ cheetahs but they are more efficient runners.
A. faster than
B. fast as
D. are fast as
- Albert Einstein’s contributions to the scientific theory were ________ those of Galileo and Newton.
A. important than
B. more important
C. the most important
D. as important as
Bài 6: Rewrite the sentences using As … as structure
- I’m quite tall but you are taller.
- My salary is high, but hers is higher.
- You know a bit about history, but I know more.
- It’s still cold, but it was colder last year.
- I still feel quite tired, but I felt a lot more tired last week.
- The Smiths have lived here for quite a long time, but we’ve lived here longer.
- I was a bit nervous before the exam, but usually, I’m a lot more nervous.
- The station was nearer than I thought. (far)
- I know them better than you do.
- There are fewer people at this meeting than last month.
Bài 7: Choose the correct answer
- My car is ______ hers.
A. cheap than B. cheaper C. more cheap than D. cheaper than
- Sarah is ______ at English than Susan.
A. good B. well C. better D. best
- No one in my class is ______ intelligent ______ Amy.
A. as/as B. more/as C. as/than D. the/more
- This book is ______ interesting than that book.
A. the most B. less C. as D. so
- Peter works ______ than we do.
A. harder B. as hard as C. more harder D. so hard as
- Emily ran ______ than Bruce.
A. more fast B. faster C. fast D. the fastest
- Xavier is 18 years old. Mimi is 20 years old. Mimi is 2 years ______ Xavier.
A. older than B. younger than C. older D. younger
- Bikes are ______ cars.
A. cheap than B. more cheap C. the cheapest D. cheaper than
- My mom cooked ______ than me.
A. well B. more good C. better D. more well
- Summer is ______ season of the year.
A. hot B. more hot C. hotter D. the hottest
- as tall as
- not as big as
- as smart as
- not as fast as
- as long as
- as happy as
- as not dangerous as
- as intelligent as
- as good as
- not as hot as
- My house is different from your house.
- Life in the city is different from life in the countryside.
- Alice’s hair is the same colour as mine.
- My sister is interested in the same subject as me.
- My best friend is the same age as me.
- My favourite food is different from my mother’s.
- The musician on TV is playing the same instrument as me.
- This class has the same number of students as that class.
- Jim doesn’t work as hard as Kate.
- This province is as hot as that province.
- Linda didn’t do as well on the English test as Maria.
- The first exam was as difficult as the second exam.
- The impala doesn’t run as fast as the cheetah.
- Mrs Brown doesn’t talk as quietly as Mrs Smith.
- My house is as old as his house.
- Penny isn’t as young as Darwin.
- The green car is as fast as the purple car.
- Jim is not as tall as Andy.
- The violin is not as low as the cello.
- This copy is as bad as the other one.
- My sister is as optimistic as I am.
- Today it’s not as windy as yesterday.
- This soup was as delicious as that soup.
- Grapefruit juice is not as sweet as lemonade.
- Amanda is as brave as Mandy.
- Silver is not as heavy as gold.
- I’m not as tall as you.
- My salary isn’t as high as hers.
- You don’t know as much about history as I do.
- It isn’t as cold as it was last year.
- I don’t feel as tired as I did last week.
- The Smiths haven’t lived here as long as we have.
- I wasn’t as nervous before the exam as I usually am.
- The station wasn’t as far as I thought.
- You don’t know them as well as I.
- There aren’t as many people at this meeting as last month.
Hy vọng sau khi đọc bài viết trên, các bạn đã hệ thống lại kiến thức về cấu trúc ngữ pháp so sánh bằng trong tiếng Anh để có thể sử dụng nó thành thạo hơn trong giao tiếp hằng ngày và cả trong những kỳ thi. Chúc các bạn học tốt và Vietop hẹn các bạn ở những bài viết sau!